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Topics: google, html5, game, packet, dump, reverse engineering. Just a rant on the improper use of language in government. This article presents a comprehensive framework for valuing financial instruments subject to credit risk. In particular, we focus on the impact of default dependenc e on asset pricing , as correlated default risk is one of the most pervasive threats in financial markets. We analyze how swap rates are affected by bilateral counterparty credit risk , and how CDS spreads depend on the trilateral credit risk of the buyer, seller, and reference entity in a contract.

Moreover, we study the effect Topics: asset pricing, credit risk modeling, unilateral, bilateral, multilateral credit risk, He stressed that the Party should discipline itself and strengthen party self-discipline, putting forward a series of new concepts, ideas and methods, and leading to great achievements on the two aspects. To help the mass and cadres understand, learn and grasp Xi Jinping's important comments This book provides a historical overview of Chinese economic reform over the past 30 years.

From the genesis of the reform to the gradual improvement of the market system, and then to the re-start of the critical stage of the reform, this book includes not only research on the reform process, but also detailed descriptions of the key areas of reform since the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee. On this basis, the author develops six logics for Chinese economic reform There is a major impact on the market due to the arrangements of different enterprises of cooperation and innovation of the business model innovation performance and competitive position.

In the process of innovation, cooperation should consider various factors in the selection of an appropriate model and innovation. In fact, a particular enterprise does not only use the innovative approach, which is often a combination of various methods. For example, certain technologies through market Topics: Cooperative innovation, Enterprise, Model.

That is, it is a process of entropy productions. This means the final result of combination is more uncer tain, and can not give a good decision. Several illustrative examples are given to explain and testify this problem. Finally, a conclusion is given, in order to point out Topics: evidence reasoning, Dezert-Smarandache theory, combinational rule, belief function theory.

This means the final result of combination is more uncertain, and can not give a good decision. Finally, a conclusion is given, in order to point out the The Realistic Figure and the Elegant Figure. In: Pintors catalans. Romanticisme i Realisme en el segle XIX. This chapter is about the two tendencies in catalan pictorial Realism of XIXth century around the representation of the human figure: one next to the french Realism of the school of Barbizon, mostly represented by the influence of Gustave Courbet and, on the other hand, painters next to a more brilliant and theatrical scenes, according to the requirements that the high society clients demanded.

Topics: art history, 19th and XXth centuries catalan painting, realist painting, romanticism. This article presents a new model for valuing a credit default swap CDS contract that is affected by multiple credit risks of the buyer, seller and reference entity. We show that default dependency has a significant impact on asset pricing.

In fact, correlated default risk is one of the most pervasive threats in financial markets. We also show that a fully collateralized CDS is not equivalent to a risk-free one. In other words, full collateralization cannot eliminate counterparty risk Topics: valuation model, credit risk modeling, collateralization, correlation, CDS.

This article presents a generic model for pricing financial derivatives subject to counterparty credit risk. Both unilateral and bilateral types of credit risks are considered. Our study shows that credit risk should be modeled as American style options in most cases, which require a backward induction valuation. To correct a common mistake in the literature, we emphasize that the market value of a defaultable derivative is actually a risky value rather than a risk-free value.

Credit value Topics: credit value adjustment CVA , credit risk modeling, financial derivative valuation, This paper presents an analytical model for valuing interest rate swaps, subject to bilateral counterparty credit risk. The counterparty defaults are modeled by the reduced-form model as the first jump of a time-inhomogeneous Poisson process.

All quantities modeled are market-observable. The closed-form solution gives us a better understanding of the impact of the credit asymmetry on swap value, credit value adjustment, swap rate and swap spread. Topics: defaultable interest rate swap, bilateral defaultable claim, credit asymmetry, market models, Black Artistic biography and illustrated catalogue of bookplates of the engraver, drawer and painter Maria Josepa Colom, an outstanding catalan artist of the second half of the 20th century.

The behavior and perception of personal digital archiving of Chinese university students. The collection of hotel and restaurant menus of the Biblioteca de Catalunya. An interesting collection of Ephemera materials concerning to hotel and restaurant menus of nineteenth and early twentieth centuries at the National Library of Catalonia Topics: Menus, Ephemera, prints, travels, Nestle, restaurants.

The historical evolution of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party. The illustrator and painter Jaume Pahissa i Laporta Barcelona, Artistic biography of the drawer, illustrator and painter Jaume Pahissa i Laporta, fourth of a series dedicated to catalan artists of the XIXth and XXth centuries. Topics: 19th and 20th centuries catalan artists, Literary illustration, Wood engraving, Landscape painting. Topics: art history, 19th century catalan painting, 19th century realist painting, pictorial portraits.

Topics: art history, 19th and 20th centuries catalan painting, realist painting, pictorial portraits, Topics: art history, 19th century catalan painting, realist painting, pictorial portraits, illustration, Full text of the communication 'The postmodernist painters and the late 19th century Barcelona', for the Session IV 'Artistic invention and social echo', published electronically in by the Historical Archive of the City Barcelona History Seminar on the occasion of the X Congress of History of Barcelona November , Some of the emerging postmodernist barcelonian painters of the last decade of the 19th century, grouped under the convention of 'The Saffron Group' Joaquim Mir, Topics: Catalan Modernism, catalan art history, postimpressionism, suburban painting, late 19th century The principal contradiction and its evolution in the new era of the socialism society with Chinese characteristics.

Marx suggested that it is infeasible and wrong to arrange the economic categories according to the order by which they have worked in history. Their order is determined by their interrelationship in the modern bourgeois society, which is in contrast to their natural sequence or that which is in accordance with the course of history. Sometimes, a logical sequence is precisely opposite to the historical sequence. Topics: Political economy, Historical materialism, The new era of socialism with Chinese characteristics, The programme of the Somali Revolutionary Socialist Party.

Innovations relating to the consumption of hard prey are implicated in ecological shifts in marine ecosystems as early as the mid-Paleozoic. Lungfishes represent the first and longest-ranging lineage of durophagous vertebrates, but how and when the various feeding specializations of this group arose remain unclear.

Two exceptionally preserved fossils of the Early Devonian lobe-finned fish Youngolepis reveal the origin of the specialized lungfish feeding mechanism. Youngolepis has a radically Topics: Classification and taxonomy, Ichthyology, Palaeontology. First monographic study about one of the most important religious and architectural sculptors of the later XIXth and early XXth centuries in Catalunya.

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Download Download PDF. Yodel, the traditional chant from South Tirol and Austrian Regions. She teaches music history in several associations and private schools. It is probably one of many adaptations printed during the 19th century. It includes twelve vocal melodies of the Austrian folk tradition, but with an instrumental accompani- ment.

Surprisingly, it was published by the English editor I. But, often, there are extraordinary stories hidden inside the scores. Stories that are lost due to many reasons and forgotten over time, but, once rediscovered, they can reveal much about the unique power of music to overcome geographical, style or epoch limita- tions. It is not sim- ple to find biographical information about this group: there are no entries in several music and musicians dictionaries, and there are no historical or recent monographs2 on the subject3; The only article about their musical activities in the USA dates back to , in the Quarterly Music Review, by Hans Nathan; the preface to the com- plete Tyrolese Melodies edition in 3 volumes4, written by William Ball, contains a short biography of the Rainers, mainly told in their own words.

But the life and mu- sic of the Rainers have deeply contributed to the birth and development of a musical vogue, crossing both style and social class. They were born in Fugen, a small village in the Zillerth Valley, in Tyrol. It was a blend of fact and fiction. The first volume collects the Twelve Favorite Songs. In the 19th century, like today, Tyrol was seen as an uncontaminated corner of nature, where man has settled down and protected a fairy-tale-like setting.

So, in the fall of , the Rainers departed5 and travelled through Bavaria, Saxony, Prussia, Poland and Russia, performing their songs and dancing. Then, in , the Russian Emperor Alexander, enraptured by the Tyrolese melodies, sponsored a second and third tour. On one hand they performed at courts in front of nobles and kings, and, on the other, they performed public shows in the streets and in different venues6.

Moscheles, composer and performer, a friend of Beethoven and Mendel- sohn, was known as one of the most important contemporary composers and he was considered an influential exponent of music life in London. What made their performances so special? Wherever they were sung, they could evoke the wide vistas of the Alps and the pastoral life: There is a charm also in the simplicity and grace of the tunes, and the very peculiar inflex- ions which mark them as belonging to the people of a wild and pastoral country.

They lose indeed much of their effect in the atmosphere of the concert and hall room: but in London we must put up with a great deal of the artificial, and fancy if we can the basin in the Green Park to be the Lake of Zurich: Constitution Hill, Montblac; and the water-carts in Piccadilly the arrow Rhone The London Literary Gazette, June 2, The Alpine songs are folk tunes for one or more voices a cappella like glee style , without instrumental accompaniment8, partly improvised. Their manner of singing is at once remarkable and pleasing; and to those who have never heard the chant of the Tyrolese in their native land, cannot fail to be a source of amusement and gratification.

They sang ten or twelve of their national songs or airs, in the way of quin- tets or glees: and occasionally one or more of the voice imitated an instrumental accompa- niment of flute or horn, and had an uncommon effect. One of the brothers executed a solo, which it is impossible to describe; the modulation were neither singing, nor whistling, nor howling, but something of all commingled, which suggested to our minds the idea of savage howl reduced to melody The London Literary Gazette, June 2, Since its origin, yodeling was linked to mountain life9: it was functionally related to traditional rituals, customs and work.

For instance, yodel was cattle calling Viehlockler , or prayer calling Betruf , or Alpine blessing. Then the primary form became a kind of male-voice part song for quartet or quintet. Yodeling means singing in a manner that exploits noticeable breaks between natu- ral and falsetto voice. It 8 Some pictures show The Rainer Family singing with a guitar accompaniment.

How do you get this particular vocalization? Indeed, the epiglottis is where the style of yo- deling is lodged. Part of the throat, the epiglottis is a thin, leaf-shaped, flexible flap of cartilage attached to the wall of the pharynx, which acts like a cut-off valve between the trachea and the esophagus. Sound is not produced by the vibrating vocal cords, but by the recurrent stop-and-go of air flow through the glottis.

During yodeling, the epi- glottis moves up and down to cause a click that is like an explosive clap. To sum up, yodeling is a complex vocal technique and it is important to note that there was nothing in the written symbols to indicate yodeling. So, how can we place the Tyrolese Melodies piano arrangements by Moscheles? Actually, the twelve songs are easy listening. All the songs have three stanzas that are the same musically, but differ in text. But how did Moscheles really render the simple but energetic strains of the Tyrolese songs adapted to the English ear?!

London The yodel section has no text and we can identify it by the distinguish- ing fourth and sixth jumps for the right hand. Song no. It shows a wordless melody - at fourth and sixth intervals - above a chord accompaniment. Figure 3. Almost certainly not; these adaptations would probably allow singers and 12 In the Twelve Favorite Songs they correspond to songs no.

Both adaptations had the aim of suggest- ing the yodel register changes effects, but they are easier to sing than epiglottis artic- ulation. Why was it so important to Moscheles to make them easier? Secondly, because the rising bourgeoisie embraced that reper- toire by performing it privately in their social rendez-vous. We should not forget that it was the period of bourgeois musical institutions the most famous example was the Gewandhaus of Leipzig that controlled the life of public concerts.

Music was the mirror of a ris- ing middle class. So, Moscheles chose the piano for only one reason: it had become the icon of the middle-class, who placed its aspirations of emancipation and musical taste in that instrument. And Yodel?! But yodel history does not end here.

The second generation of Rainer performances was welcomed with curiosity and admiration there, and yodeling was immediately in- tegrated with American folk music: so, the 19th-century cowboys - half shepherds like the Tyrolese Family , half rising class - became yodelers.

There have been nu- merous cowboy and cowgirl yodel singers since They have not been included this study14 but their music shows us that many vocal effects in English popular music are yodeled. This type of yodeling was common in cowboy music of the s and s: 13 See, for example, Chants des Alpes — 20 Tyroliennes, by J. Weckerlin, Paris. Figure 6. But they are proof that yodel is not specific to one genre or era. References Moscheles, Charlotte. Life of Moscheles with selections from his diaries and correspondence in two volumes, London.

Moscheles, Ignaz and William Ball. The Tyrolese Melodies…: arranged for one or four voi- ces with an accompaniment for the piano forte. London: Willis and co Royal Musical Repertory. Quarterly Music, no. Plantenga, Bart. The Secret History of Yodeling around the World. New York: Routledge. Wise, Tim. Ra- dical Musicology, no. MEDIA anaterra eu. Em alguns casos foram associados objetos digitais, correspondentes a imagens dos documentos. Acedido Briet, Suzanne. Bushey, Jessica. Ace- dido Silva, Armando B.

Malheiro da. Porto: Afrontamento. Silva, Armando Malheiro da. Silva, Armando Malheiro da e Fernanda Ribeiro. The main aims of this paper are to analyse how nationalist ideology was a contributing factor in conditioning musi- cal culture in Cyprus, and how music served as a powerful tool in the hands of Greek Cypriot nationalists. It draws on early newspapers and publications of the island, which provide information about local musical practices that reinforced the national identity-building process.

These include reports on several music groups and events, references to patriotic songs and nationalist oriented musical material applied to mu- sic instruction in public schools. Keywords: Nationalism; National identity; Musical culture; Patriotic songs; Music instruction 19 Anastasia Hasikou is a PhD candidate at City University London, where she is studying the so- ciological aspects of music in Cyprus during the British colonial period. She is currently a lecturer at Arte Music Academy in Nicosia.

Therefore, the Greek Cypriot com- munity lives today in the south while the Turkish Cypriot community lives in the north. The liberation movement which had flourish in many European nation- states together with the ideal of creating common national identities proved to be problematic in regions like Cyprus consisting of two different ethnic groups which constructed nationalist rhetoric hostile to each other.

The difficult living conditions on the island under the severe economic crisis that climaxed after the end of the First World War provided fertile soil for the spread of the local Greek Cypriot nationalist movement. The s is a decade considered to be the golden age of Greek Cypriot urban nationalism, which was triggered by the conflict that occurred between the Greek Cypriot urban elite, including the Or- thodox Church, and the British colonial administration Katsiaounis In this context, culture was in many cases used as a powerful tool to spread nationalist ideology.

As part of this, musical events, forms and practices were often served to create national identity. Moreover, taking the example of Cyprus, this discussion strives to draw conclusions about how nationalist ideology affected the conditioning of lo- cal musical culture. As a result of the post-war First World War economic crisis, the new economic policy of British colonial power22 negatively af- fected not only the Cypriot peasantry but also the hitherto privileged traditional elite, which subsequently entered into opposition with the state.

Greek Cypriot nationalism opposed the colonial British state administration and agitated in favour of union with Greece. Through the cultivation of nationalist aspiration for union with Greece, the Greek Cypriot urban class endeav- oured to strengthen the conflict with the new economic policy of Britain and particular- ly the local urban administration class for implementing the new policy in Cyprus.

Particular music groups and musical events became a powerful tool in the hands of local nationalists. The news- paper Chronos, for example, describes plans for the celebration of the anniversary of the Greek revolution of against the Ottoman Empire that was to be celebrated by the Evsevia Greek association in the town of Paphos on 25 March The article heartily encouraged people to gather and send messages of disapproval to the British Government, which, during the same year, planned to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of British colonialism in Cyprus.

The organization of musical events by associations made up of ethnic Greeks in Cyprus was a frequent phenomenon after the First World War. Newspapers such as Chronos and Mikroula made regular references to musical events that took place with associations like Apollonas, Anorthosis, and Mousai. These events usually had a na- tionalist character, including performances of the Greek national anthem and songs that referred to the Greek nation. Moreover, the establishment of wind ensembles lo- cally called philharmonic orchestras and also the establishment of mandolinatas that promoted nationalist aspirations also became very common.

One example is the phil- harmonic orchestra in the town of Nicosia, which participated in social events and Greek national anniversaries. In response, the British government withdrew its financial support. This move, although aimed at reducing its nationalist activity, did nothing but intensify its patriotic role among the urban class in the town of Nicosia Ibid.

Patriotic Songs The relationship between music and nationalism was manifested in a particularly direct way by the production of patriotic songs23 by Cypriots, the textual content of which expressed nationalist sentiments. As this research indicates, patriotic songs were numerically superior to any other local printed music material of the period. The song promotes some anachronistic ideas de- rived from the Roman period, when a multiethnic state that identified itself as Roman was besieged by Muslims: Everyone knows from the start the Greek nation […], Within Constantinople, it had its king Who made a huge noise with his army.

But God in Heaven wanted to give, A horrendous catastrophe and to humiliate it… Christodoulou and Ioannides , Nevertheless, Greek Cyp- riot nationalism did not cease as a movement among Greek Cypriots, but remained the dominant ideology of the Greek Cypriot community Katsiaounis , Apart from songs that were composed by Cypriots, the movement of Greek Cyp- riot nationalism, mainly through some urban newspapers, also had recycled patriotic songs originally produced for internal use within Greece.

This song expresses the faith that Constantinople will again belong to the Greek State. The content of this category is often adapted to more recent historical conjunctures and Greek na- tional aims, having an intensely emotional character. Amongst the most characteristic elements of this category are the references to the cathedral of St. Sophia converted into mosque in and now a museum in Istanbul, the lament of Mary, and the hope for the final vindication of the Greek nation. During the second half of the 19th cen- tury, these songs were symbols of the Greek national ideal of Megali Idea As a result, this category of song accompanied the rhetoric of Greek Cypriot nationalism and its main goal of union with Greece.

From the golden age of Greek Cypriot urban nationalism, the Greek Cypriot com- munity inherited a music heritage consisting of nationalist songs that constitute a sig- nificant part of the local folk musical culture. The cultural products that promoted Greek nationalism in Cyprus had a severe impact on relations between the Greek and Turkish communities on the island.

In op- position to Greek Cypriot nationalism, a few decades later the corresponding Turkish Cypriot nationalism appeared, imbued with its own nationalist cultural products. Nationalist music instruction One of the major institutions that contributed to spreading Greek nationalism in Cyprus was the educational system. In line with this, the Greek Cypriot Orthodox Church made an immense contribution to the dissemina- tion of the nationalist ideology in Cypriot society through education.

The systematization of practical instruction in music was taken over by certain school teachers who were considered knowledgeable in this area. Although there are no sources referring to music instruction in public schools dating back to the s, there is a more recent local publication Papadopoulos that provides information on the philoso- phy behind the structure of the music lesson. The focus of this publication is the music teacher Charalambos Papadopoulos , who taught in Greek Cypriot public schools in the s and assisted in the construction of the national curriculum of many lessons, including music.

According to this source, public music instruction included the following three categories: ecclesiastical music, national songs, and European theory Ibid. The nationalist movement that flourished among many European nation- states in the 19th century inevitably had a significant impact on Greek Cypriot education. The emphasis given to the construction of national identity and the nationalist view of cultural self-expression through nationhood was mirrored in the music syllabus of the Greek Cypriot public schools.

The fact that national songs were included in a separate category in the music curriculum shows that the cultivation of pride in the Greek nation and the spreading of nationalist aspirations towards liberation from colonial rule and then union with Greece were central to musical instruction of the time.

The nationalist effort to promote the cause of Greek Cypriot nationalism through education is most evident through the teaching material that was used in Greek Cyp- riot public schools. There are several sources that prove this effort with lists of school textbooks containing school songs with nationalist content that were sung by student choirs in Greek Cypriot public schools.

Nation- alist music accompanied many commemorations of Greek national anniversaries or- ganised by the school. In these events that occurred several times during the year, stu- dent choirs would proudly sing nationalist songs such as the above examples and thus contribute to the formation of nationalist spirit among the Greek Cypriot people. The Greek national anthem was always sung at the end of all celebrations. In this context, the concept of an identity-building process employed by the nationalist movements in Europe was closely related to political landscapes.

In the case of Cy- prus, the political landscape of the s included the interweaving of various interests between the British Empire, Greece and Turkey. The Greek Cypriot urban nationalist movement was proven to be a considerable power that constituted a national identity- building process for the local Greek Cypriot population.

The findings presented in this paper suggest that there was a bidirectional relation between political nationalism and musical culture in the Greek Cypriot community of the s. In the hands of nationalist movement music was a significant means to culti- vate nationalist ideology, and at the same time nationalism was a significant contribut- ing factor in conditioning music culture in Cyprus. Moreover, the spread of the urban nationalist movement during the decade under examination affected the production of local folk songs as illustrated in the textual content of the number of patriotic songs that were lo- cally printed during that period.

The twentieth-century history of Cyprus shows that the bulwark between Greek Cypriot and Turkish Cypriot communities in Cyprus has its origins in the developing ideals of national identity and nationhood in the Greek Cypriot urban society, in the s. As a result of the climax of nationalism during the period under examination, a part of folk music encompasses elements that divide the two communities.

National- ist songs of the s, as part of the inherited local music, are a significant facet that nowadays constitute a cultural line that separates the local population of Cyprus. References Anthias, Tefkros. London: Anthias Publications. Bolhman, Philip V. United States: Oxford University Press. Chourmouzios, Stylianos. Ethiki Mousai [National Muse]. Christodoulidou, Cristina-Evelin. In En Chordais kai Organois. Christodoulou, Menelaos and Konstantinos Ioannides eds.

I, Nicosia: Zavalli Ltd. Hill, Sir George. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Holland, Robert and Markides Diana. The British and the Hellenes. Struggles for Mastery in the Eastern Mediterranean Oxford: Oxford University Press. Katsiaounis, Rolandos. H Diaskeptiki Me Anaskopisi tis Periodou With Review of the Period ]. Nicosia: Theopres. Kohn, Hans. The Idea of Nationalism. A study in its origins and background; with a new introduc- tion by Craig Calhoun.

Michael, Michalis N. Great Bri- tain: Palgrave Macmillan. Murphy, Michael and Harry White. In Musical Construction of Nationalism; es- says on the history and ideology of European musical culture , edited by Harry White and Michael Murphy, Ireland: Cork University Press.

Ekpaideftiki Pentikontaetiris [Educational Fifty]. Politis, Nicolaos. Dimotika Tragoudia [Demotic Songs]. Athens: Kalokathi. Stathis, Evangelos. Ellinika Dimotika Tragoudia. Athens: I. Agogi May 12, Agogi 1 June, Chronos March 23, Founded in within the scope of national centenary commemorations, the Society became one of the most important symphonic choirs in the Portuguese musical scene of this period. Departing from this information on repertoires and performers, we will address the performative contexts and, lastly, their repercussions on the media and musical criticism of that time.

O maestro Frederico de Freitas foi o grande impulsionador da Sociedade Bach e a Missa Solene de Frederico de Freitas. Ainda no ano de , a Sociedade apresentava em S. Maria II Ibidem. Cascudo, Teresa. Sevilha: Editorial Double J. Coelho, Ruy. Freitas, Frederico.

Joyce, A. Teatro S. Seara Nova, Sousa, Berta Alves de. Primeiro de Janeiro. Vargas, Palma. Lisboa: Teatro Nacional de S. Frederico de Freitas demon- strates in his chamber music production a combination of modernist aesthetic elements encompassing melodies of traditional character, alongside a French aesthetic influence.

Uma segunda fase, entre e , demonstra a variedade de contextos perfor- mativos e sociedades. Braga da Cruz, Manuel. Carvalho, Paulo Archer. Mitemas do integralismo Lusitano. Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Co- imbra, Coimbra. In Frederico de Freitas , editado por Teresa Cascudo, In Frederico de Freitas editado por Teresa Cascudo, Sevilha: Editorial Doble J.

Porto: Typografia Occidental. Acerca do integralismo lusitano. Lisboa: Seara nova. Programas de concerto , 15 de agosto a 8 de setembro. VII Festival de Sintra - programa de concertos. This study shows how the contact with foreign musicians who performed in Brazilian radio stations provided a cultural and musical exchange and opened up a range of opportunities for musicians of this era, both in terms of greater pro- fessional recognition, and for making music at a new level of professionalism.

This paper also highlights the importance that this context had on the trombone and musical educa- tion, including the replacement of piston trombone sticks. Estas orquestras requeriam outros instrumentos, entre os quais, o trombone. Sou- za Souza The Cultural Industries. Los Angeles. London: SAGE. McCann, Bryan. Travassos, Elizabeth. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Ed. Vidal, Erick de Oliveira. Wasserman, Maria Clara. Webgrafia Barroso, Ary s.

Raul de Souza. Furthermore, and taking into consideration the facts then prevailing, the objective of this analysis in- volved the effectiveness of the OUP as a vehicle for democratic public cultural policies and for attracting new audiences to culture across all its meanings. Cantando espalharei por toda a parte Se a tanto me ajudar o engenho e arte.

Lisboa: Vega [1a ed. Lisboa: Museu da P. Bispo, Alexandre ed. Marinho, Helena. Aveiro: Universidade de Aveiro. In AAVV. Gomes, Rui Telmo. Johnson33 Brigham Young University crj gmail. Ini- tially deemed too difficult to play and too transgressive of musical norms, the concerto received vitriolic reviews.

The edits made by Leopold Auer, contemporary of Tchaikovsky, are the best known. Auer declined the performance opportunity, saying 33 Caitlin R. Johnson is a violin performance student at Brigham Young University. Her research earned her several grants to study the Tchaikovsky Concerto in Vienna, where the work was pre- miered.

Instead, Adolf Brodsky performed the premiere in Vienna in , three years after Tchaikovsky wrote the piece. The violin is no longer played: it is tugged about, torn, beaten black and blue […] The Adagio is well on the way to reconciling us and winning us over when, all too soon, it breaks off to make way for a fi- nale that transports us to the brutal and wretched jollity of a Russian church festival. We see a host of gross and savage faces, hear crude curses, and smell the booze.

In the course of a discussion of obscene illustrations, Friedrich Vischer [the nineteenth-century aesthetician] once maintained that there were pictures whose stink one could see. Composing the concerto had been cathartic for Tchaikovsky, who wrote it as he was rebuilding himself after his failed marriage.

He had great aspirations for the piece and was deeply disappointed at its reception. In fact, Hanslick vocally opposed the works of composers outside the Brahmsian style Auer , Hanslick was not alone is praising Brahms; Auer, too, championed his music Schwarz , The Five, comprising Balakirev, Borodin, Cui, Mussorgsky, and Rimsky-Korsakov, strove to create a Russian school of composition by combining musical nationalism and pro- gress Norris and Frolova-Walker.

Cui wrote: Tchaikovsky, too, is far from being a partisan of the neo-Russian school; he might be more correctly described as its enemy; yet he has been unable to escape its influence, which has left visible traces in his lyric works. What is a misfortune in his case, is his inability to be- come an out and out adherent of either the one or the other party cit. It seems that Tchaikovsky could not win. Despite what his contemporaries said, Tchaikovsky loved Russian folk music and composed with it.

He described the Russian elements in the violin concerto: So far as the Russian element in general is concerned in my music, i. He was imbued by his Russian essence but not bound by it. He oper- ated within two musical worlds, though he did not belong entirely to either. Auer later championed the concerto, but he first made substantial edits that he justified as more idiomatic to the violin. The Auer edition became the performance standard for much of the 20th century. Kreisler was solely a performer and did not teach his version of the concerto to students as Auer did.

Auer, on the other hand, was a professor for fifty years at the St. Petersburg Con- servatory, where he taught his version of the Tchaikovsky concerto to his students Schwarz —Elman, Zimbalist, Heifetz, and others Schwarz , —who concertized worldwide.

Taking only some cuts would create a patchy performance, confusing to audiences familiar with the move- ment. One result is that the cuts make the concerto less distinctly Russian. The other part was that Auer thought some of the con- certo was not suited to the character of the violin and would not sound how Tchaiko- vsky intended Steinberg , Some violinists may want to honor Tchaikovsky by playing his original concerto.

A matter of personal taste Auer said that the concerto, even if played perfectly as written, would not sound as Tchaikovsky hoped. The individual taste of performers today, too, should play a role in which version they play. This idea is further evidenced by the successful modern performances of the original and the edited versions. Another question violinists should ask themselves is if one best version of the con- certo is even possible. The individuality of the performer and the circumstances of the performance are some factors that may affect finding one best version.

Auer highlighted the importance of a performer taking individual responsibility for interpretation: In my opinion the question of musical style is one that can be considered only from a purely individual standpoint: it is not possible to determine exactly how the Beethoven Concerto or the Bach Chaconne should be played. A hundred years ago and two hundred years ago people played, and heard with other ears than those of our own twentieth century, the age of the telephone and the radio Auer , vi.

The drone-like accompaniment 2. Brahms furnished his First Piano Concerto and his Violin Concerto with Hungarian finales, neither of which drops so much as a hint of reflection or irony Kerman , The main one was twelve measures in the third movement. Tchaikovsky has a short refrain repeated seven times there. Such an approach will help performers and audiences appreciate this masterpiece, even though the concerto and composer did not initially experience this positive reception. References Applebaum, Samuel, and Sada Applebaum.

Auer, Leopold. My Long Life in Music. New York: Frederick A. Stokes Company. Violin Master Works and their Interpretation. New York: Carl Fischer, Inc. Blom, Eric. New York: W. Bruneau, Alfred. Musiques de Russie et musiciens de France. Greenberg, Robert. Chantilly, Virginia: The Teaching Company. Hepokoski, James. Cambridge: Cambridge Univer- sity Press. Kerman, Joseph. Concerto Conversations. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.

Milstein, Nathan, and Solomon Volkov. New York: Limelight Editions. Newmarch, Rosa. London: Wil- liam Reeves. Norris, Geoffrey and Marina Frolova-Walker. Olin, Dirk. Orlova, Alexandra. Tchaikovsky: A Self-Portrait. Translated by R. Schwarz, Boris.

New York: Simon and Schuster. Steinberg, Michael. New York: Oxford University Press. Taruskin, Richard. Chaikovsky and the Ghetto. Wiley, Roland John. In , King Mswati III called for the nation to compose new songs and in response, makhoyane-player Bhe- mani Magagula created a song that documents a controversial mass eviction ordered by the political elite. This song, and other compositions like it, engages loyalty and dissatis- faction, complicating our understanding of makhoyane players as uncritical of the status quo.

Keywords: Swaziland; Musical bows; Makhoyane; Dissent. Every Swazi man belongs to an age-regiment and through this, is patriotically bound to the King in war and tribute labour. The speech, which also dealt with the im- portance of food production in the country, was followed by the King presenting the warriors with a number of cattle to be slaughtered, as is customary. This regal statement highlights two themes in the musical life of Swaziland that I will explore in this paper.

Firstly, I examine the politics of art and culture with regards to Swazi nationalism, which is founded on images of and an allegiance to the Mswati monarchy. Secondly, I investigate how individual musicians, and one elderly musical bow player in particular, use the musical construct of tradition as a means to contest the terms of that homogenising hegemony.

The following reflections are based on my doctoral research and recent fieldwork in Swaziland. The Politics of Culture in Swaziland Contemporary Swaziland is a small landlocked country of approximately 1. By the s, Swaziland had made the transition from a relatively self-sufficient society to one heavily dependent on wage labour and imports Crush , 5. Despite the increasing constrictions under the British protectorateship, the Swazi monarchy continued to wield power.

Swaziland gained independence from Britain in In preparation for this, the then-Paramount Chief King Sobhuza II formed the Imbokodvo National Move- ment in order to compete with other political parties in pre-independence elections Ibid. King Sobhuza II ruled by decree from until and in , he brought in a new constitution reliant on his favoured Tinkhundla system: a system of leadership based on regional councils of elders Ibid.

His growing au- thoritarianism, and the lavish lifestyle of his family and the royal elite in Swaziland have been called into question by broader society and neighbouring countries. The recent conduct of the Swazi government demonstrates not only the actions of an in- creasingly paranoid state, with growing police brutality, but also the increasing dis- satisfaction of civil society. Within this climate of civil unrest, the ruling elite have placed greater importance on a unified Swazi national imaginary, engaging enacted cultural mechanisms based on a nostalgic image of a rural Swazi life to reinforce this portrayal.

This remains the case today, though the rising number of cultural competitions the National Arts and Culture Awards, Miss Cultural Heritage , trade shows, and the activities of the Swaziland National Arts and Culture Council also contribute in this regard. Thus, the academic voice and the work of oral history have been strongly mediated through the government and leaders of Swaziland, who have presided over information access.

However, today the channels through which these messages are being dissemi- nated have diversified. It is from this place that King Mswati calls the regiments to compose their new songs and not to merely write new lyrics for old melodies. Kucamba: Individual engagement with national culture Mkhulu Bhemani Magagula is an elderly musician who plays the makhoyane mu- sical bow, a gourd-resonated single string musical bow characteristically performed by men and women as a self-delectational instrument.

These musicians are largely based in the rural areas of Swaziland and in all but two cases, are elderly and eco- nomically marginalised. Figure 1. Mkhulu Bhemani Magagula playing his makhoyane at Ebuhleni. Now he is close to his nine- ties and a widower.

He lives alone on his assigned land, growing a few vegetables, and playing makhoyane to himself in the evenings. When I initially approached him in April this year , Magagula had not performed in public for many years. After some investigation, the money mysteri- ously appeared again.

Decades ago, he was recorded playing the makhoyane by Ed- ward Mthethwa and Gideon Dlamini of Swazi Radio and the sounds of his bow bring in the hourly news broadcasts on the Siswati radio channel to this day though very few people know who is playing.

In this sense, the Swaziland National Council of Arts and Culture and those who know him recognise Magagula as an important musician, but he hardly ever performs in public. Though the rhetoric supplied by government and ministerial channels values artists such as Magagula, he is relatively unknown to the rest of the country. Though this was aimed at the regiments and their particular ceremonial polyphonic vocal music, numerous instrumentalists took heed and began to compose new songs.

Mkhulu Magagula was one such musician and the song below is a recent creation of his inspired by this call. In the following song, we can read the numerous ways that Mkhulu Magagula engages the old in the new in his music. Siswati lyrics Translation Unenkinga-nkinga-nkinga-nkinga-nkinga, You have a problem, problem, problem in the Nkinga enyakatfo North Unenkinga-nkinga-nkinga-nkinga-nkinga, You have a problem, problem, problem in the Nkinga enyakatfo North Hekele, baba nomake Hekele, mother and father.

Ngiyakhala kaNgwane. I am crying, Swaziland. I am Ngiyakhala kaNgwane. They are fighting with bottoms, at Mkhweli, father. Nkosi bayibulele kamKhweli, ha! BakaMaguga balwa tibhunu bomake Those of the Maguga family are being fought with bottoms, mothers.

Figure 2. In the year , the two traditional chiefs of the Macetjeni and KaMkh- weli areas were forcefully evicted by security forces, along with their two hundred followers. Prince Maguga a relative of King Mswati III had laid claim to the land in this region and so ordered the removal of all inhabitants under cover of darkness.

After this violent event, the King, Police Commissioner and armed forces refused to allow the communities to return to their homes, and ignored the numerous court orders that advised their return. As a method of demonstrating their disapproval, the women of the area went to his house, lifted their skirts and exposed their naked bottoms to him.

This is not an uncommon way to demonstrate protest in Swaziland particularly when there is no further recourse for political dissent. Though there is a comical aspect to this larger story, the tale ends darkly as the Prince died soon after this incident. In this musical case study, we hear a song similar in structure to many others by Magagula and other makhoyane players.

The melodic accompaniment provided by the makhoyane is cyclical, with a treble recurring overtone melody that supports and answers the vocal material. Sihambe eMbabane! Khuluma mantombazana! We go to Mbabane! Speak, young women! Though Magagula, in the complete song, hints at numerous stories from different areas, his overall theme is a lament of the hardships found across Swaziland. Other low-level chiefs feared for their safety and security, and many were distressed by the disingenuous way in which the royals behaved.

His compositions reflect his eve- ryday realities, but also serve to document events of local and national importance. Without overtly expressing political sentiment, Mkhulu Magagula is reminding us that support for the monarchy is not uniform, or unconditional. He terms these: indifference, overt resistance, deri- sion, indirect discourse, and praise. Whilst Mkhulu Bhemani is outwardly a supporter of the King, his songs use evocative, humorous and poetic lyrics to show how even the most marginalised can engage their citizenship.

References Bonner, Philip. Crush, Jonathan. The Struggle for Swazi Labour: Davies, Robert H. The Kingdom of Swaziland: A Profile. London: Zed Books Ltd. Dlamini, Senzo. Kuper, Hilda. Levin, Richard. When the Sleeping Grass Awakens. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. MacMillan, Hugh. Rycroft, David. Say it in SiSwati. Mbabane: Websters. White, Bob. Nilsen, Berlin: Jovis. While many were killed in the sinkholes, some , had to flee to Italy and to other regions of the world.

The paper presents the results of a survey among the Istrian exiles, showing the manifold anthropological values of this phenomenon, as well as episodes of cultural appropriation and creative reinterpretations made by the exiles. Their singing thus acquires several symbolic values, and it lightens and gives a meaning to their grief for having lost both their past and their land. Keywords: Istria; Verdi; Singing; 20th century; Choir Within the borders of Istria, a peninsula partially surrounded by the Adriatic Sea, a whole micro-cosmos of culture, history, nature and languages can be found.

She is also a con- cert pianist and piano teacher at the Accademia Perosi in Biella. Website: www. Though for centuries the most commonly spoken language among its inhabit- ants was Italian or rather an Italic dialect similar to that of Venice , the ethnical and linguistic components of the Istrian population were numerous, and varied both in time and among the different zones of the land.

The resulting cultural mosaic represented a unique and fascinating example of pacific cohabitation among different socio-linguis- tic components, and enriched Istria, its culture, its art, its history and even its gastron- omy with an amazing plurality. This situation was generally maintained and protected during the Austro-Hungar- ian domination starting from : those years were often looked back on with nos- talgia by the elder population, who could remember the wealth, splendour and cultural vivacity of the Austrian years Thus, with the Italian victory over Austria in World War I, Istria and several other territories officially became part of Italy, to which most of their inhabitants felt they already belonged in spirit.

Unfortunately, it took very little time, after , for Fascism to rise in Italy. And — as is well known — Fascism was intolerant of plurality and diversity. Rakovac , p. Alongside with the better life quality experienced under the Austrian rule, I have personally spoken with several aged Istrians who could remember the cultural life when Pula was one of the main harbours of the Austrian Empire.

An estimated 16, persons, including women, children and elderly people, were killed, often by being thrown into so-called foibe, i. Frequently, those condemned to death were tied to one another and lined up on the edges of the sinkhole: only one of the victims was shot to death, and the falling of his or her corpse drew all others into the foiba, where they were condemned to a terrible agony before dying of starvation and traumas. The peace treaty of offered to Italian Istrians the possibility of declaring their allegiance: however, those who wished to maintain their Italian citizenry were forced to abandon their homes, their land and their wealth.

Thus, some , people left Istria: the capital city of Pola was abandoned by the exiles mainly by ship the famous Toscana , whereas fugitives from other territories often had to flee clandestinely, often risking their lives, and practically always without any means of subsistence.

It must be stressed that Italian Istrians were not migrants: on the contrary, they were leaving a victorious country for one which had lost the war, and leaving a situa- tion in which most of them owned lands, were fishermen or had commercial activities for one of total economic uncertainty. Indeed, post-war Italy could hardly be called a promised land for those leaving Istria: they were gathered within refugee camps which strongly resembled ghettos, with enormous halls where families were separated from each other by no more than a curtain.

Moreover, post-war Italy — where all former supporters of Fascism had miracu- lously turned into anti-Fascists — offered a glacial welcome to its Istrian citizens: once more, the erroneous and unfair identification of their strong national identity as an ex- pression of Fascist beliefs contributed to isolating and marginalise them. The entire history of the Istrian exiles, however, was interspersed with musicality, and very often expressed by it.

Several operatic seasons had contributed to the musical life of early twentieth-century Istria, and amateur musicianship was extremely com- mon among people of all social classes. Mark, i. Venice, to which the Italian Istrians felt they still belonged.

Those abandoning Istria needed a very different song to express their grief, their feeling of loss, abandonment and uncertainty. The 2, people who left Pola on the Toscana ship in February could observe their city which gradually disappeared from the horizon: it is touching to know, as eyewitnesses tell us, that many of the exiles spontaneously started to sing O Signore, dal tetto natio from I Lombardi alla Prima Crociata during that heart-breaking moment Vivoda , One of those exiles clearly declared the high degree of awareness and deliberation of that musical choice.

He told me At the beginning, in Pola, we felt like Crusaders, because we fled Communism. We wanted to show our faith. Many of those who left Istria in had the strong hope that they would eventu- ally return to their land after all, the last part of Istria was officially ceded to Yugosla- via only in Only when the exiles gradually understood that they were never to be given back their land, did the momentousness of regret, nostalgia and homesickness seize their communal feeling. Thus, while songs such as Si ridesti il Leon di Castiglia express pride and belong- ing, O Signore dal tetto natio is characterised by religious feeling and fittingly corre- sponds to the moment of parting and exile.

Some Istrians had also to emigrate, after having left their homeland, and went as far as Canada or Australia. One of them wrote: 37 Private conversation, Sept. It was a way to unload our nostalgia, to remember our lost land and the nation we had to leave. Imagine a lot of young people, surrounded by the elderly, with the accordion or guitar, in summer evenings: we sung with nostalgia, in front of a barrack in the refugee camps, or waiting to be embarked for the unknown, or on the decks.

Just to explain our sadness. And all sang with their hearts. It is difficult to explain to younger gen- erations what one feels in the heart when one is forced to leave their homeland The moment when exiles felt the definitive and ineluctable feature of their condi- tion, and gradually integrated themselves within the socio-political context of penin- sular Italy required a different musical expression.

Earlier, they hoped they could return to their homeland as owners, not as guests, and thus reconstruct the social and ethnic context preceding the exodus; later, they understood that the society they had lost could only be reconstructed artificially when Istrian exiles gathered together. Several documents could be gathered among the abundant literature of memoirs and recollections written by many exiles, as well as in articles published within their newspapers and reviews; moreover, I interviewed 38 P.

Though some of the most important responses were given as free and spontane- ous declarations, the data collected through the questionnaire represent a fundamental starting-point to understand the role of this song for the Istrian exiles. The number of re- spondents fifty is undoubtedly insufficient for any reliable scientific analysis, but it can profitably integrate with the other written and oral testimonies found in my research. Bertoglio , , During the Risorgimento it expressed the feeling of those who, under a foreign yoke, wished for liberty and reunion with the motherland; after the war, it expressed and still expressed the grief of those who lost their fatherland.

On Feb. In fact, the relationships between the Italians who fled from Istria the majority and those who remained there a small minority have frequently been strained: the exiles sometimes considered the others as almost traitors, whereas those who remained in Istria were convinced that the exiles had lost their land to Italy forever by abandoning it. Another modified version was elaborated among the groups of Dalmatian exiles their history is closely linked to that of the Istrians, though with some significant differ- ences.

The former version, thus, represents the attitude of several among the younger descendants of the exiles and looks forward to the future; the latter speaks the mind of many elder exiles and looks back to the past.

My translation. After the very first notes were sung by the choir, a loud applause spontaneously erupted from the audience, who could not wait for the song to finish before applauding again. Fulvio Farba in Belli , As the sung words de- scribe, the memory can freely and immediately go to Istria, and also reconstruct the society, tradition, culture, feelings, views, nature and culture which the exiles miss so sorely: both the lost time and place are evoked chorally and together by many people , and seem to be closer, or even partially recoverable through the means of music.

References Belli, Guglielmo, ed. Trieste: Artigra- ficheriva. Bertoglio, Chiara, Rakovac, Milan, ed. Sinovi Istre. Vivoda, Lino, Duarte49 Abstract: Half-way between gender and polyphony, the research for this article is gui- ded by feminist epistemologies, and by a vision on choir chants with a gender perspec- tive. Duarte n. Theodor W. Como se a linguagem das mulheres continuasse por criar Weigel O exemplo dos instrumentistas mostra E quem me le- vou, Alessandra Pollini, uma amiga, disse-me que era assim mesmo: chegar e cantar.

De facto. Neste vasto coro de harmonia, as vozes dissidentes de algumas feministas, de dirigentes laborais e de socia- listas tinham dificuldade em fazer-se ouvir Scott , Gender and the politics of History. Nova Iorque: Columbia Univer- sity Press. Critical Inquiry 8, 2: E como se interpreta a polifonia? O procedimento criou uma resultante musical nova, que era a verticalidade musical, quer dizer, notas musicais sobrepostas soando ao mesmo tempo. E tantas, mas tantas outras. Feminist Epistemologies, London: Routledge.

Vozes insubmissas. Lisboa: D. Arribas, Josemi Lorenzo, Hildegarda de Bingen , Biblioteca de Mujeres. Madrid: Ediciones del Orto. Barradas, Ana, Lis- boa: Ela por Ela. Benson, Rodney e Rik Neveu, Bourdieu and the Journalistic Field.

Cambridge: Polity Press. Bonito, Rebelo, Porto: Altior Melior. Quixote, Lisboa, Londres: Penguin Books, Obra publicada originalmente em Faces de Eva Estudos sobre a mulher Gouges, Olympe. Paris: Mercure de France. Grosenick, Uta ed. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. Paris: Gallimard. Offen, Karen, Nova Iorque: Routledge.

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