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Joseph Mayer, twenty pounds ; the late Lord Londesborough, plate xxii, and the loan of plates viii and ix ; Mr. Kolfe, plates x and xi ; Mr. Jewitt, plate xv ; Mr. Waller, plate xxiii ; and Mr. King, plate xxix. For the loan of some woodcuts I am indebted to Dr. Bruce, Mr. Bateman, and Mr. Rome, December 20th, Dear Roach Smith, — According to the promise I made when I took my leave of you in London, that I would jot down the impressions which a first visit to Italy made upon my mind, I now proceed to give the results of a tour the most important in its associations to myself, and the plea- sures of which could only have been enhanced by your society when examining the finest Roman remains in France and Italy.
I am old enough to remember distinctly the almost insuperable delays of a journey from London to Paris, when it occupied one day to get to Dover, another to cross the channel, and then thirty hours continuous travel by diligence through the dreary roads of Picardy before the French capital was reached. Now, thanks to steam and rail, I left London-bridge Station at one p.
This was on the 23rd of October, , the weather warm and bland, and the sea as calm as a lake. Lord Londesborough, by whose invitation I went to Paris, to accompany himself and family to Rome, where they intended to pass the winter, gave me a warm wel- come, and showed me a few fine medieval antiquities he had bought on his road.
Among them was the silver reli- quary I have since engraved in the Miscellanea Graphica ; a very curious German statuette of a saint, enriched with goldsmiths 5 work and jewels ; and an ivory memento mori of large size, with some curious characteristic figures round its base. Often as I had been to Paris, this was my first visit there. I never saw a collection with so many curious suits.
It is not so extensive as that in our Tower of London, and is about equal in quantity to the Meyrick collection ; but it surpasses both in rare and singular specimens, particularly German suits, which are quite unique in quaintness of character, many imitating the puffed and slashed dresses of the era of Maximilian I. Thence we went to the cathedral of Notre Dame, which has recently been painted and gilt internally ; it is, how- ever, so tawdry and common in style, that it has lost thereby all its venerable character.
In the treasury of this cathedral we were shown some expensive church plate; but all modern: the first great revolution occa- sioned the loss of old examples, which were then reck- lessly broken up or melted. They possess here a vast quantity of valuable dresses, all fabricated since the advent of the first Napoleon, and used for coronations, marriages, and baptisms. The needlework of all is mar- vellous for its taste and beauty ; it is, in fact, an art sui generis.
A cast of his face exhibits a fleshy, placid, and humane countenance. There is, however, a more terrible memento of him, consisting of the three verte- brae of his back, showing the fractures made by the shot which killed him. They are placed on a cushion under a small canopy, in a reliquary constructed in the medieval taste, but are far from agreeable to look upon.
Hence we went to the Bibliotheque , to see the collection of gems there. Gems indeed! The antique j ewels and cameos are most wonder- ful ; but the cup carved from an onyx, which once be- longed to the church of St. Denis, is a marvel of antique art. The gold dish from the tomb of Clovis, and the medieval jewellery, are all worthy any enthusiasm that can be rendered to their matchless art-labour. One day only being available for Paris, the next saw us on the rail to Dijon.
The country gets very beautiful as you approach this famed capital of the old dukes of Bur- gundy. The slopes of the hills are peculiarly favourable to the growth of fine vines. A soil that seems to possess no nourishment for vegetable life is the one upon which the vine flourishes best.
A sort of dry, decomposed rock, exposed to a tropical sun, invariably produces the best fruit and the best wines. We stayed at the Hotel de la Cloche, a very antiquated inn, which had been inhabited by the Emperor en route to Lyons last year, after the fear- ful inundations there. You ascend to the rooms from an open courtyard, up a dark twisting stair, which seemed more fit to lead to a hayloft. The rooms are all low and dark ; but one or two had been made gay by gilded paper, for the especial use of his Majesty.
At ten at night I rambled down the street to look at the general effect of the town. I could easily fancy, in the indistinct light, that I was in a city of the middle ages. The deep gables. The gloomy old towers, deserted churches, and tortuous lanes unlit by any lamps, combined with the darkness to give a great air of romance to the scene, and I walked dreamily up one lane and down another in total silence until I was suddenly accosted by a gendarme, who quietly asked if I were a stranger, and, on my answering in the affirmative, backed the question by a request to see my passport.
The passport I could not show him, as it was at my hotel, so away we walked there together, chatting very sociably ; and after a due examination of the docu- ment, and a franc given him to drink, he walked off with many bows to join two others in plain clothes, who seem to have put my friend upon the scent.
It was plain to me from this, that the police have become more vigilant in France of late. My first visit in the morning was to the Museum. It is most appropriately placed in the old palace of the dukes of Burgundy : the building has, however, been much modernized. It contains several rooms filled with Greek and Roman antiquities, but not of a very remarkable kind. In the great hall is a most noble fireplace, beside which the famed old dukes may have often sat.
It is a wide open hearth of stone, above which rises floriated gothic tracery reaching to the roof ; canopied niches are on each side, of such grand proportions that they hold complete suits of armour. It occupies one entire side of the hall, and is twenty feet in width by about thirty in height.
Here are also the noble tombs of Philip-le- hardi and Jean-sans-peur , both most wonderful works of art. They were executed by Claus Slater, a Dutchman, much patronized by this court, and are considered among the finest monuments of medieval sculpture. Nothing can exceed the extraordinary variety, truthfulness and beauty of these little figures. Beside these tombs is a model of the exquisite Sainte Chapelle, once the chief ornament of Dijon; but which was sold for building materials in , having been desecrated in the great revolution.
On the walls of this room are hung the portable carved altar-pieces used by the old dukes. They are Flemish works, crowded with figures ; and upon one of the folding shutters is the curious figure representing St. George of England, which is celebrated for the complete example it affords of armour at a time when it assumed very peculiar forms, and of which no such perfect specimen exists elsewhere. In a glass case beside these, are preserved some of the toilet implements of the Duchess of Burgundy, as well as older relics of great interest : among them is the crozier of St.
Robert, a work of the eleventh century ; and the wooden cup used by St. Bernard in the era of the Crusades. There are also in this Museum some few old paintings, and among them some peculiarly interesting portraits of the early dukes. It is this desire to make the French local museums the repositories of the relics of their own peculiar past history, that gives to each and all so much interest in the eyes of visitors.
You go to see them, as- sured that you will find in each something which will aid you in understanding the locality in which they are placed the better for your visit. You do not find the same ex- clusive love for stuffed birds and beasts as among our- selves. Englishmen are con- tinually boasting of their love of country, but there are probably no persons in the world who show, or feel, less interest in the historic memorials of the past.
In nothing is the difference between the two nations more strongly seen than in this leading idea for the construction of museums : thus while all French museums are primarily established for the proper exposition of the monuments of the country and the people, the English museums, including the great national establishment in London, devote their best ener- gies to those of any other country rather than their own.
Our pride of country is all concentrated in the time present : the time past, which has helped to make us what we are, is ungratefully consigned to oblivion ; and it is too fre- quently a thankless labour which the historic student devotes to its elimination.
This town is full of relics of its past greatness. Many of its houses are richly carved in stone, and the elabora- tion of design exhibited upon some of them is indicative at once of the wealth and taste of their originators. The Notre Dame has still upon its roof the old clock, noted by Froissart as one of the most remarkable productions of his day. The church of St. Beninge has a singular wooden spire, twisted like the famous English example at Chesterfield. It is of very graceful proportions, and enjoys much cele- brity in the district.
There are many fine old churches in this town desecrated into markets, warehouses, and stables ; one, near St. Beninge, used as a granary, struck me by the Bembrandt-like effect of the interior ; it was crammed with corn, and a strong stream of sun-light breaking through the crannies of the roof dimly disclosed the threshers who were busy on the floor at their labours. The mid-day train carried us to Lyons, which we reached at half-past seven p. The museum at Lyons is a noble building, well filled.
It is a valuable historic record of the past greatness of the town from the days of the Romans. One of its most in- teresting relics consists of the bronze tablets, on which are inscribed the speech made by Claudius when Censor, in the Roman Senate a.
Claudius was born at Lyons ; and this important relic was discovered in on the heights of St. Sebas- tian. In the cases which surround the walls are numer- ous antiquities of the Roman era, and a few good bronzes : the centre of the room is occupied by a fine mosaic floor, discovered at Ainay in , representing a chariot race in 8 LYONS.
There are other fine pavements also in these rooms discovered in or near the city. Comarmond, the keeper, showed me in his private room fragments of a bronze statue found in the Saone. It is executed in a very grand style of art, and must have been at least twenty feet in height.
The arcades all round the court-yard of the building are filled with Roman statues and inscriptions, proving the greatness and grandeur of this city in the Roman era. I was particularly struck with the curiosity of one stone sarcophagus marked in the collection. It is forty-five inches broad and thirty-six high, and is of the kind used for the deposit of glass ves- sels in cremation.
The second day in Lyons I occupied in visiting the heights of Fourvieres, passing through some old streets chiefly inhabited by weavers. The summit commands a wonderful view in clear weather, bounded by Mont Blanc, nearly one hundred miles off. Of course this is guide- book knowledge, for the mist hung over the whole country so completely as to shut out all view beyond about three miles around the spot, and that not very distinctly seen.
On these heights was the palace of the Homan emperors, and here both Claudius and Caligula were born. The old cathedral at the base has some fine sculptures upon its facade, though frightfully injured by the Huguenots. I noted an external bracket, with a charming group of a knight and lady fourteenth century , remarkable for the sweetness of its feeling and the beauty of its execu- tion, particularly in the draperies. There are several curious bible scenes, in a series of panels on each recess of the doors, along with others which exhibit scenes of everyday life, and are of great interest to the student of manners and customs.
There is ball and buckler play, knights armed by ladies, and many whimsical realizations of the wonderful monsters described in the Bestiarium, a work which had great charms in the middle ages. Beside the cathedral, in a conventual building, is still to be traced a very curious and early cornice, supported on corbels very like Byzantine work.
But of all things in Lyons the most interesting to me is the old church of Ainay, once a suburb, now a part of the city. Its exterior is most rich in Byzantine details, having VOL. The cupola within is supported by four columns of granite, formed by cutting in half the two pillars which formerly stood on each side of the famous altar erected by the men of Lyons to the Emperor Augustus at the confluence of the Rhone and Saone.
This church is more Italian-looking than any I have seen before in France in its internal decoration, while the exterior, with its irregularity of design, and small cu- polas on the roof, reminds one of the conventional repre- sentations of churches in old Greek pictures.
In the sacristry are the remains of the apse of a very old chapel, having a mosaic floor ; this was erected over the dungeons where the early Christians, Pothinus and Blandina, are said to have been immured previous to their martyrdom a. A few steps lead down into a small vaulted chapel, the walls of which have been recently elaborately painted and gilt with emblematic figures and ornament.
On each side is a cell, made in the thickness of the wall, and not more than five feet in length by three in width, and perhaps four in height : there is neither light, air, nor space to move in these horrible stone cages, in which the inmate cannot properly lie down or sit up.
Each is entered by a small aperture about three feet square, which is closed by a massive iron grating. There is no better authenticated legend than that of the martyrs once im- mured in these cells. Pothinus was the Christian bishop of Lyons, and was ninety years of age when he was thrust into this horrid hole ; he died after two days of confine- ment.
But the female, Blandina, was cruelly tormented, and then cast to the beasts in the amphitheatre. It was afterwards the cradle of west- ern Christianity, and is everyway remarkable in history. It is now a lonely, dirty, neglected place. In the midst of the town, and near the cathedral of St. Maurice, is a small square temple, constructed by the Romans in honour of Augustus. In the front of the temple is a series of nail- marks which indicate the position and form of the bronze letters once affixed there by the original builders : a patient antiquary, M.
It will be best understood by the appended sketch, which exhibits the progress made, in the restorations and repairs which were going on while I was there, and brought to light some peculiarities of the building, showing its great similarity to the more renowned Maison Carree at Nismes. One of the old Gothic windows was also uncovered between the columns, exhibiting the style of architecture adopted at the era when the Pagan temple did duty as a Christian church. This building was recently used as the museum ; but the objects in it were inaccessible to visitors at this period, as they were under safeguard at the Mairie during the excavation and re- storation of this place.
At the upper part of the town, in the quaint old Place du Pilori, a noble arch and vault lead into a small space which was once occupied by the forum. It is seventy-six feet in height, and rests on a base composed of four arches with pillars at each angle ; it is of excel- lent masonry, but the pillars are clumsy in their propor- tions ; it is evidently a work of the later Roman era, pro- bably about the time of Honorius. The stones are fas- tened by iron clamps, and the appearance of the monu- ment has been much injured by chipping the stones to get at this metal, a custom which appears to have been very prevalent among the barbaric tribes who succeeded to the Romans.
There is no trace whatever of an inscrip- tion. With the exception of the loss of a few stones from the summit and the wanton injuries already noted, this monument is in a very perfect state, and its general ap- pearance is very striking from whatever point of view it is observed. There were many cafes, where men and women, mounted on small stages, sang songs ; and some few of the better sort were fitted like a theatre with pit and gallery, set out with tables at which refreshments of all kinds were to be had.
A notification to that effect was appended to the drop scene of the theatre ; any of the seats once deserted were rapidly filled by new comers, and generally from twenty to fifty persons were waiting at the doors for the finish of each act. These little plays are generally constructed for two or three performers only, and reminded me very forcibly of the interludes of the ancient stage, being equally barren of incident and of the slightest possible construction.
Re- freshments at these places are, of course, a little dearer than elsewhere ; but as the charge covers all expenses of singers, actors, musicians, house-rent, etc. There was a great deal of taste displayed in the fitting up of many of these places.
The audience seemed all to be of the labouring classes, and enjoyed themselves thoroughly with the simple drinks and light cakes pro- vided for them. It was pleasant to see the sociality and good temper of these poor hardworking people : I was better pleased with them than with the performances, which had so little merit, that one wondered how so much enjoyment could be felt in seeing them as was evinced by the spectators. I was also somewhat startled by the title of a sentimental melo-drama in five acts, an- nounced at another theatre.
The journey to Nismes was performed next day by rail in five hours. It is a very pleasant railway by the banks of the Rhone the whole way. It towers above the puny toVn so nobly, that it at once impresses the spectator with the most vivid idea of the grandeur of conception and the power of execution bestowed by the old Romans on their public works.
The view across the plain opposite the town, with the noble peak of Mont Ventoux and the lower Alps beyond, is very fine indeed. It is said to be almost identical with the scenery of Greece near Mount Pentilicus. The vegeta- tion here is quite different to other parts of France. The country is rocky and arid : vines and olives abound ; there is, however, no verdure or large trees, and the whole district seems baked dry in the sun. At Avig- non, the palace of the popes is the great feature of the town, which is still surrounded by medieval fortifications, and seems to be a delightful place for an antiquarian sojourn.
Arrived at Nismes about three p. It is a remarkably clean and cheerful place, with a boulevard all round it and many good shops. The interior of the town thus encircled, is a dense mass of narrow tortuous lanes, quite like a medieval city crammed within its fortifications. In front of the cathedral is a sculptured frieze of very early work, representing scenes from the book of Genesis. It appears to have been exe- cuted in the ninth or tenth century.
On the esplanade is a charming modern fountain by Pradier, one of the best in France ; it represents Nismes as a turreted female genius, at whose feet sit four tributary river gods and goddesses. Near it is the glorious amphitheatre it is amazingly perfect, and is occasionally used for exhibitions of horse-riding at the present day.
By a very little study the most minute peculiarities of its construction can be made out. It has suffered less than any similar relic, and strikes with astonishment by its state of preserva- tion. The large flag-stones, which form a sort of wall to the arena, are standing, and upon some of the seats are still inscribed the number and quality of the persons to whom they were apportioned. This theatre is larger than that at Verona, and is capable of holding seventeen thousand persons.
There are thirty rows of seats, and some of the stone slabs used in their construction are twelve feet in length and two in width. Stones still more enormous are used to roof the arcades of the building. Above this upper row of arcades, which surround the entire structure, you can still see many specimens of the hollow brackets, or consoles, through which the masts NISMES.
The mast rested on the lower cornice, and the wall was also grooved to hold it more firmly, as will be well understood by the en- graving here given of one of the best preserved examples. A short distance from the amphitheatre, in the midst of a small square opposite the modern theatre, stands the most celebrated antique building in France, the Maison Carree as the little Corinthian temple is popu- larly called , which, conse- crated in the reign of Augus- tus, has served the purposes of a public building up to the present time.
All round the enclosure are many sculptured stones, collected in the neighbourhood ; and among them a very well- executed figure of a winged Priapus guided by a female genius, a relic of a worship which gave celebrity to the city of Nemausus in the Roman era. Following the line of the Boulevard you reach a ruined Roman gate, with an in- scription to the honour of Augustus ; it consists of a double arch, with two smaller side arches for the conve- nience of foot-travellers.
The inscription above is per- vol. A single arch, of Roman work, originally forming ano- ther of the gates, is on the opposite side of the town ; it is known as the Porte de France, and is in a line with the Via Domitia. It is surmounted by an attic, decorated with four square pilasters, and was originally flanked by round towers.
It is an enormous mass of brickwork ; but its object is not very clear, unless it formed one of the towers of defence for the town below. The interior is hollow and conical like a kiln. The view from this site is very grand and extensive, and you may trace the Rhone nearly to its junction with the Mediterranean. Ihe rail hence to Marseilles passes the neglected- looking town of Arles, and so over a very singular tract of land termed the Crau, consisting of a desert tract of pebble and shingle imbedded in sand ; but the mass of small stones so deep and dense that no vegetation can thiive upon it.
It was well known to the ancients, who have made it the scene of the combat between Hercules and the Ligurians, and accounted for this large quantity of stones by assuring us that Jupiter aided his son in the battle by showering them down, after Hercules had ex- hausted his arrows. One cannot help feeling how con- fidently a pious Homan might have defended the truth of the legend by an appeal to this convincing state of the land ; nor can we also help feeling that many a saintly legend rests on proof not nearly so satisfactory, or so well capable of ocular demonstration.
AVe now emerge from the high land, and get a peep at the blue sea near the town of Salon ; having on the hill above us the old castle of the celebrated astrologer Nostradamus. He died here in , and is buried in the old church. It is just the wild and solitary spot that seems fitted for the residence of so strange a student, and the grim old castle looks suf- ficiently mystic in its savage gloom. That it is equal to the East in its temperature, may be proved by the free growth in the open air of plants and shrubs which we never see in England out of hothouses.
The neighbourhood of Mar- seilles is singularly beautiful ; the country houses of the wealthy merchant-men, in the midst of lovely gardens, look toward the sea ; and the whole district has a beauty ol vegetation, and a picturesque disposition, which cannot fail to charm. Marseilles is imposing in the distance; but not so agreeable when examined : in spite of much solicitude on the part of the inhabitants to make it pleasant by long avenues of trees, it is a confined and disagreeable locality; while the bad drainage, and the fearful putridity of the water in the harbour, make it nearly impossible for a stranger to walk in some parts of the town.
I had four days in Marseilles, an abundance of time to see all that is to be seen, and which might by some travellers be seen in one day. It was a saint s day when we reached it, and all the shops were rigorously shut, much more so than on a Sunday. All the inhabitants seemed to have turned into the streets, and the noise and dust were excessive. In the upper part of the town a grand religious festival was taking place, amid the booming of cannon at the elevation of the host.
I he streets weie strewn with herbs and hung with flowers, and the houses decorated with flags and hangings. In the lower part of the town the motley assemblage of persons which the shipping traffic has brought to this port from Africa, Greece, Turkey, and the entire shores of the Mediter- ranean, gave the scene a sort of Vauxhall-masquerade look as they moved among the trees. At one corner of the square a female mountebank, dressed in the first style of Parisian fashion, had mounted her phaeton, with a pierrot and drummer behind her, and was descanting on the virtues of her nostrums, in a torrent of eloquence only interrupted by some sufferers from tooth-ache, who ascended her carriage and placed their heads between her knees, as she stood on the seat behind them and relieved them of their refractory molars.
In the principal square is a statue to the memory of the good Bishop Belzunce, who heroically remained to succour the inhabitants of the city during the fearful pestilence of , when upwards of forty thousand per- sons perished. It is impossible to walk about the town without feeling, that the great pestilences which have depopulated Marseilles, seem to be only lying in wait to burst out at any moment.
There is no tide to cleanse the bay, and the drainage of the town from the time of the Romans lies festering in the sun. The town is fully ex- posed to an extreme heat, which seems to whiten the red tiles of the houses. The Jardin Napoleon, on the hill above the bay, com- mands a magnificent view of the town and a fine prospect to seaward. But the aspect is that of a scorched country ; the houses like burned clay ; the rocky coast as if formed of calcined stone, which had split irregularly by the action of fire ; dry, treeless, and savage is the character of the coast.
It is a continued alley of trees for two miles ; on each side are the bastides or summer-houses of the Mar- seillaises. Tropical trees grow freely here, and a gigantic reed grass, reminding one of pictures of sugar plantations. The regularity with which our course towards Rome had been pursued now received a sudden check. It was produced by a letter, announcing the impossibility of se- curing the palazzo in which Lord Londesborough and his household were to be located in the winter.
This threw out all our arrangements ; but after some thought, Lord Londesborough decided on going to Cannes and person- ally inspecting a house which had been offered him as a purchase. On the 4th of November we left Marseilles in a baking sun, up a mountainous road, more dusty than ever I saw a road before ; the wheels sunk in it halfway to the axles, and its appearance was almost like plaster of Paris.
The leaves of the trees were whitened by its de- posit. By noon we reached the high land, among plenty of verdure, and the views were frequently delightful. Brignolles is a busy-looking country town with a very Italian look, the streets extremely narrow, the houses high, with small windows, and deficient of all architec- tural taste or decoration.
Le Luc is more picturesque, and Vidauban is well situated ; but the most interesting town on the route is that usually chosen as the resting place for the night — Frejus. It is a small neglected place, in which the people seem to be living among ruins of the Roman era. Outside the walls are considerable remains of the Forum Julii, as it was called. There is also the remains of a circus ; and one of the gates of the town wall is of very peculiar construction, the walls forming a seg- ment of a circle towards the gate, as if intended to give the town-guards the advantage of annoying an advancing enemy.
A represents the principal gate, with a smaller entry on each side of it for foot-passengers, b b denote the situa- tion of the towers, which protect the angle where the flat and circular walls meet. Very near this is a well en- tirely built of Roman tile ; and continuing round the walls to the other side of the town, we come in sight of a noble arch, constructed of stone with layers of tile between, and popularly known here as La Porte doree.
The engraving represents this noble fragment, which looks toward the sea, and is be- lieved to have been the water-gate of the city. It now stands in an olive garden. In construction it is most massive. The stones are neatly squared, and the binding courses of tiles have equal sym- metry ; but they are in deeper layers than we see them in Roman works in England, and vary from three to six layers of tile in the various courses.
The arch is formed of very large stones, handed round by a single row of flat tiles. Opposite this arch, withinside the town, is the fragment of a wall, having the foundations of arcades in its surface. In juxtaposition with this are many more fragments of Roman work, which exist in profusion in and around the town, rendering it worthy of more attention than has yet been bestowed upon it by antiquaries. Many good antiqui- ties have been found here ; but there is no local museum.
Lord Londesborough purchased a good antefix, which has upon its front a female head, carefully modeled and finished by hand ; it exhibits more of the pure feeling of Roman art as practised in Italy, than we see in antiques of the same era further north, where patronage and taste would natur- ally ebb.
Roach Smith, as a memorial of friendly remembrance in travel. Its course has been traced for more than twenty-four miles up the valley of the Ciagne. The channel by which the water was conveyed to the town can be clearly seen. The engraving will convey an idea of the grandeur of this work ; it was sketched about half a mile from Frejus, on the roadside. The sloping blocks which now support the piers are not antique, but have been added in modern time to preserve all that remains of the antique work.
But a great nation should not be entirely governed by the trade-spirit alone ; and the absorbing love of it, which closes the heart and mind of VOL. A wealthy ignorance can never be an object for gratulation, either individually or nationally. The country a short distance beyond this becomes very beautiful.
The entire vegetation is unlike what we see in England. The cork tree, umbrella pine, cypress, and ever- green oak, are mingled with the olive, arbutus, cactus, and aloe, while here and there the palm waves its graceful branches. It is impossible to imagine a more lovely country. The passes of the mountain range nearer Cannes, known as Les Esterels, furnish views of the noblest kind ; they are covered with verdure, and the valleys are luxu- riant in their growth ; the tints of the sunlight on the porphyry rocks whence the ancients obtained their mar- bles are very beautiful.
As you approach the sea, Cannes comes in view : it is a small town, built in a half circle round the bay, having a quadruple row of trees in front of the houses, used as a public promenade. On one side of the bay, the height called Mont Chevalier is crowned by a very ancient castle and church. This is the only anti- quarian feature in the town ; but the ascent from the lower part is very curious : it is a long street of stairs, crossed here and there by roads to the other streets on different levels up the mountain side, and crowned by the towers above.
The view from the bay embraces the islands of St. Marguerite and St. Honorat, at about two miles and a half distance. He had promised to aid in selling the principality to the French king ; but failing in his promise, he was secretly entrapped by Louis, in May , and immured in the fortress of St.
Marguerite in , where he remained eleven years. In the autumn of he was taken to the Bastille, where he died on the 19th of November, He was 24 years strictly confined, but lived to the age of sixty-three. These facts have been elicited from the books taken from the Bastille when it was destroyed in the great French Revo- lution, and would probably never have been made public but for that event. It further appears that the mask he always wore was of black velvet, not iron ; and he was so closely concealed, and strictly watched, because Louis had no shadow of right thus to entrap, and cruelly confine, the free subject of another state, who committed no crime but that of refusing to betray it.
Obtaining a boat, bearing the classic name of Pericles, we crossed to the fortress, and obtained permission of the governor to go over the prisons. The internal buildings are all comparatively modern ; the old prisons are a range of five cells built in a row on the scarp of the rock, and remain in their original state That in which the world- renowned prisoner was located for so many dreary years is a large vaulted room, with a very high ceiling, and one large window looking over the sea toward the bay of Cannes.
The wall is about 14 feet thick, and there are three rows of iron grates in the arched window formed in this wall, and a double folding glazed window inside ; a small fire-place is beside it, above which are some shelves. These are the only features to break the monotony of the blank walls. It is a very large airy hall, and the view from the window is cheerful. I would not say aught to lessen the indignant sense of cruelty and injustice all should feel who read the story of the man thus dishonourably entrapped : I but speak of the comparative state of this place with such frightful cells as we still see in the old German towns of Ratisbon, or Nuremberg, or the horrid prisons of Venice, con- structions that seem to justify the scorn and contempt of a Byron for human nature, thus perverted into fiendishness.
The entire fortress was at the time of our visit occupied by prisoners of war, consisting of two Bedouin chiefs and about seventy of their followers. I was much struck by the noble bearing of the principal men, who possessed a native dignity that commanded respect.
Another striking thing was the total apathy or want of curiosity among them all. They scarcely condescended to bestow a look as we passed, or to take the slightest notice of our presence even when we walked through the bed-rooms, where they lazily reclined smoking or chatting. Many of the lower class were seated in their picturesque dresses on the sunny side of the walls, with their chins resting on their knees, and their ample burnous wrapped all round them.
Others were huddled in a close ring upon the ground playing some simple game, which consisted in placing small pebbles in a series of pits made in a circle. Others were employed to cook, and fetch water, and the whole island was allowed them to range in.
On the adjoining island of St. Honorat stand an old castle and a church. They seem to be the work of the eleventh or twelfth century, and are said to have been used by the Christians and Turks, as each got the mastery. It reports that St. Honorat was attacked by scruples of conscience as to the propriety of being alone on the island with a female saint as com- panion ; and that in consequence of his prayers, the sea flowed between them.
Marguerite was in despair, and, strong in her own virtue, hit on an expedient to procure herself the society of the less trustful St. She knew his weakness for strawberries, and exacted a promise that he should visit her, as usual, when they were in season.
So reasonable a request could not be refused, and the lady took such great care to select her plants, and tend them, that the fruit were ripening at all seasons : St. Honorat could not resist the miracle, and the daily visits were resumed as heretofore.
On arriving again at the boat, we found that the sailors had been busily employed in fishing during our absence. They had caught among the rest a huge polypus, which measured half-a-yard across from the tips of its arms, which twisted about horribly; this they were about to take home as a great delicacy: they cut it into fibres, which somewhat resemble cod sounds.
Another dainty was procured by the boat-hook from the rocks ; this was the echini, which creep about in great numbers by the aid of their spines : they clear the shell of the spines with a knife, then crack the shell all round, turning out the body of the creature, and retaining the lower half, upon which are deposited four ridges of spawn, which is eaten raw, swept off the shell by a piece of bread. I was urged to taste this delicacy, and did so ; but I could not help observ- ing that the bread was the best part of it.
We rode across the country next day to Nice. The views all along the high ground are singularly beautiful. The double row of mountains that rise above this favoured district, and form a barrier to the north wind, sufficiently explain the geographical reason for its continued blandness.
The entire road to Antibes is charming, and the town it- self very picturesque, and apparently strongly fortified. The gardens by the roadside are all fenced with wild aloes, which make a very strong quickset hedge. Beyond this, the river Var forms the boundary of Provence and Savoy, and passing it we are in Sardinia.
It is a broad, shallow stream, with little water at present, but bears evidence of being most boisterous in winter, when it flows down from the mountains carrying great boulders in its way. It is possible in all these river-beds to trace the sudden destruction they occasionally produce after storms in the high lands ; but they generally, in summer, look so shallow and insignificant, as they trickle in the midst of a dry plain of stones, that the stranger at first looks on them with a sort of contempt : this is checked, however, some- what speedily when he regards the broken bridges and twisted trees which mark their winter power.
Nice is a remarkably pretty place, consisting of a large number of showy hotels and lodging-houses. It is more like an English watering-place than any I ever saw on the continent ; the streets are well paved and clean, the houses in good order, excellent shops, and the whole plan equal to, and very like Brighton. There is a lovely look- out to sea, and a grand range of mountains behind the town, which is replete with every comfort and conveni- ence.
But to my mind it is too English, and too formal ; and opposed to that ease and freedom which should be the great charm of sea-side relaxation. I had received so much unaffected kindness from them all, that it was with very mixed feel- ings I left Cannes by the night boat for Marseilles, to pursue what was to me the most important journey I had ever made. A melancholy I could not repress pervaded me as I stood alone on deck, and saw the sun sink and the shores of Cannes recede.
In the night the wind arose, and by the morning it became a hurricane. It was also bitterly cold and unpleasant. It blew from the north- east, and is known in the district as the Mistral. It was not very easy to face it at the street corners, and it lashed the sea into fury in the course of the day ; I could not have believed the quiet bay at Marseilles could have been so readily transformed into surge.
The steamers were quite hidden by spray, above which the rigging and funnel only could be seen as the boats rocked and la- boured on their way. The next morning it was worse, and as I understood that these storms were continuous for a few days and then subsided, I determined to wait the exhaustion of the present one ; and as I had also in- tended to see Arles, Orange, and Avignon, on my return, I shifted my arrangements and went at once to the last of these cities by the railroad.
There are few towns more striking in general aspect, or more curious in detail when examined by the traveller, than Avignon. The old papal palace is a most dungeon- like residence ; an enormous mass of stone, founded on a rock, producing a wonderful effect by its magnitude and simplicity. The tower called the Glacier e shoots up from the rock very grandly : it was here Rienzi was imprisoned. There is a narrow passage leading to this dungeon tower.
Others were dragged from their prisons, half- killed, and then dashed down the dark recesses of the tower : their blood is still seen in long black streaks upon the walls. They had offended him mortally by revenging themselves on his nephew by assassination, he having previously provoked them by his libertinage. This nephew had probably the same intimate relationship as the nephews of the pope had with him at this dark period of history.
In a chapel near are pie- served some frescos attributed to Giotto. They possess much purity of design, but have suffered from age. Ad- joining this is the torture chamber of the inquisition; and in another part of the building the Oubliettes, as the hor- rible dungeons are termed, where living men were im- mured by a refinement of cruelty. The whole place is now used as a barrack. On the summit of the rock, beside this building, is the cathedral, remarkable for a very ancient porch, which some antiquaries have considered the Roman porch of a temple, adapted to this use by a later builder ; if so, it is of the latest Roman era, and has been cut and fitted to its AVIGNON.
The in- terior of the church is of interest, and the first object which attracts attention is the chair of the popes, placed on the right of the choir ; it is constructed of white mar- ble, and sculptured with figures of the lion of St. Mark and the winged bull of St. Luke, both being characteristic works of the fourteenth century, but possessing the earlier features of Christian art. A very ancient altar is in a small chapel nearly opposite this ; it consists of a slab of marble, the surface indented so that a raised border is all round it, and prevents the sacred utensils from accidental falls ; it is supported by five foliated pillars, one of which is of porphyry and is placed in the centre.
They typify the five wounds of the Saviour. A less ambitious tomb in the wall of the side chapel is erected over the body of Bene- dict XII obiit April 25, ; it is a remarkable early instance of the triple crown assumed by the popes, and which here takes the form of a high lounded cap, encircled by three rows of turrets, a trefoil ornament above all.
Leaving the cathedral, and passing the gates of the galace, merely glancing at the striking facade of the old papal mint opposite, with its very bold carving, admi- rably masking the otherwise blank surface of the upper floor, I pursued my way to the Museum, down a narrow lane, partially cut in the rock on which the palace is founded.
In this confined space, when the eye is cast upward, a most impressive notion is obtained of the al- most savage strength given to this home of the chief Ghiis- tian pontiff of the middle ages. If well garrisoned and provided, it may as safely be considered impregnable, before firearms were used, as any fortress then existent.
The lanes in this old town have all the labyrinthine con- fusion characteristic of their original construction in days of insecurity, when town walls were essential protections, and eagerly coveted for the security of all men. It speaks volumes for the taste of the people that it has been so long preserved ; in England such a thing could not be yet ventured on. The interior of the church is not re- markable, except for a stone pulpit, elaborately sculp- tured and filled with figures of saints : its style reminded me of the fine works of this kind I have seen in the old cities of Southern Germany, where it was probably executed.
My guide carried me on through a series of winding lanes until the Hue Calade was reached, and the M uscum before me. It is pleasant to see this constant and proper honour paid by the French nation to the men who have done any public service for the good of their fellow men. In almost every town of France you see a loving desire to comme- morate the persons who have achieved a name in science, art, or literature ; or done some act of good to the place.
You know and feel that an act of public spirit is recog- nized in the country ; but where can we show anything like this in England? What foreigner would imagine we ever had a great man, when we award public statues only to statesmen and warriors, and they frequently not the best of their class?
We need feel no surprise at the general impression of our mental inferiority as regards the higher arts of life, held by many continental people, when we agree to consign to oblivion Shakespeare, New- ton, and Bacon ; and exhibit to public gaze Lord George Bentinck, or infinite multiplications of Sir Robert Peel!
The lower floor of the Museum is occupied by sculp- ture of the Roman era, exhumed in this fertile neighbour- hood. It is especially valuable for the clearness of its details ; and was found at Orange, about seven miles north of Avignon.
In an adjoining room are some very large monuments found at Yaison fifteen miles to the north-east of Orange , one represent- ing a Mithraic sacrifice, another a chariot and horses ; all are exceedingly florid in style, and, though very pic- turesque, are of a debased art, and evidently works of the period of decadence in Roman art.
Some fine glass is preserved in another room ; it has been obtained from small stone sarcophagi, in which it has been closed se- curely, and there is one of these stone chests kept here in its integrity with all the glass vessels, lamps, etc. Among them is a fine head of a standard, upon which the Roman eagle is perched. They have also some fine Samian pottery, and some curious examples of the moulds used in its manu- facture.
It is about one foot in length. Other rooms are devoted to coins and medals ; and pic- tures, of which there is a good collection. The three Vernets are well represented here ; the eldest was a native of Avignon, and a large collection of his original sketches for his famous pictures of sea- ports are hung round one room : another instance of the honours paid by cities in France to their great men.
Descending the stair, I was struck by a life-sized figure of a barbaric soldier, found at Montdragon in The head and the right hand are want- ing ; but the cut exhibits its best peculiarities. The lower part of the body is covered by a loose tunic, and a very ample mantle is thrown from the right shoulder over the breast, and hangs over the left arm, descending behind the shield, and covering a small portion of its upper part.
It is deeply fringed, as if with small bunches of coloured wools. The right arm of the figure is en- circled by a heavy armlet ; and a sword is passed through the belt on that side, having a handle very similar to that of the dagger engraved above. The large shield is curious for its size, and the careful way in which the details are represented, the ridge down the centre, the swelling boss for the insertion of the hand, and the metal 38 AVIGNON.
The shield would then appear to be wood, and is identical with those represented in Roman coins and monuments as trophies obtained in the wars with the barbaric tribes of ancient Gaul and Germany. This figure probably originally decorated a triumphal arch. Leaving the museum I followed the line of the old walls, which are remarkably curious and perfect examples of medieval fortifications. They were chiefly constructed by Pope Clement VI, who reigned here from to My next day was devoted to Yilleneuve-les-Avignon, the town on the opposite side of the Rhone : it is an ancient place on the borders of Languedoc, and was con- sidered an important border-fortress by the French kings, who strengthened it to confront and keep in check the papal power arrayed opposite.
You cross the Rhone to it by a suspension bridge ; but beyond this is still the ancient stone tower that formed the tete-du-pont of the ancient bridge of St. Benezet, a very picturesque frag- ment of which exists on the Avignon side of the stream, consisting of three arches and an ancient chapel built on one pier. It was built by Philippe le Bel. A very noble castle crowns the rock beyond this, which recalls Froissart to mind, and so completely realizes the scenes of assault he describes, that imagination readily peoples its walls with soldiers, as we see them in the charming old pictures which illustrate some copies of his noble history.
It is almost impossible to face it : it is exceedingly drying, and fills the air with a dusky yellow haze. A day devoted to sauntering about the town and neigh- bourhood passed pleasantly, in spite of this bitter wind ; and the next I was on my road to Arles, certainly the dirtiest and most interesting place I ever saw in France. It is a dense collection of filthy streets, circling and cross- ing in all directions, and defying comprehension.
The little square known as the Place du Forum was crammed with people, as the cathedral service had just concluded, and at the Hotel du Nord I got such accommodation as one might obtain in a public house near Smithfield. An antiquaire, or curiosity-dealer, near, had some fine glass for sale ; but he had the conscience to demand sixty and eighty napoleons for cinerary urns with covers, and similar prices for coins and minor antiques.
The circular ornament is indented, and very characteristic of early bone decoration, of which numerous instances might be cited. The shank of the bone has been converted into the foot of the figure. These and other of his antiques were chiefly obtained in this city and its immediate neighbourhood. It was much improved by Constantine, who added a new town on the opposite bank of the river to the old one. It abounds with Roman ruins ; and one meets the eye of the traveller as soon as he reaches its centre, in the Place du Forum, for in front of one of the houses are imbedded two pillars and a portion of the tympanum of a temple of the Corinthian order.
In the square adjoining the Place Roy ale is an obelisk, formed of a single block of grey granite, by some supposed to have been the spina of a circus ; it was found in the Rhone, and placed here in The cathedral of St.
Trophemus in this place is remarkable for the elaborate beauty of its porch, a work of the twelfth century, covered with sculp- ture and enriched by statuary. Inside are two early Christian sarcophagi, remarkable for their delineation of scripture history in Roman taste ; one represents the passage of the Israelites through the Red Sea. The museum, on the other side of the square, is rich in simi- lar sculpture upon sarcophagi, found at Aliscamps, close to this town, as well as a multitude of minor articles from the same prolific source.
Over the gates are the remains of some very fine sculptured decorations, consisting of cupids, griffins, wreaths of flowers, etc. The magnificent columns which still decorate the scena, and the costly character of the marbles which once walled it, attest its original beauty. The seats of marble are supported on cuneiform arches, arranged in succession around the orchestra.
It was on the side of a hill with views out over the Severn Valley towards the Clent Hills and the Welsh mountains. Two dingles ran down the hill meeting at the bottom, and were watered by small streams. Shenstone took this estate in hand in , and applied himself to the question of how it should be improved. Being a man of modest means and property Shenstone realised that the most practical way to realise his gardening ambitions was to combine profit with pleasure.
He acknowledged that unimproved common nature is generally insipid, but he also noticed that different parts of a property would usually display mildly different characters. The aid of Art was thus required to enhance these different characters to give the property a variety of distinctive scenes.
Shenstone liked to keep a clear distinction between Art and Nature. Ground, woodland and water are the province of Nature, and so any alterations to these should be carefully concealed. On the other hand he contrived some scenes to appeal to the imagination through their artificially given associations, through names and urns and seats with inscriptions. It was not long before the Lytteltons, whose mansion at Hagley was just over the county boundary in Worcestershire, took an interest, and brought James Thomson to see this ferme ornee in Like Shenstone, Joseph Spence wished to combine a fame in gardening with excellence in poetry, although by profession he was a clergyman.
During Spence made a number of designs for a grove with serpentine paths running through it, which was to incorporate a great number of fruit trees, some already existing. The next year he had turned his attention to his meadows for which he designed a circumferential walk. As Byfleet is only a few miles from Woburn Farm it is not surprising that Spence was drawn towards Southcote.
He was enchanted by the place, and referred to it as a modern Paradise. When asked in by a friend, the Rev. For the most part these rules repeated what he had been told by Pope. Not like the Dutch painters, who often choose to copy nature in her lowest and most disagreeable works, nor like Michael Angelo Caravaggio who takes to her indifferently as he finds her, nor like Guido Reni who often hides or disguises her with a profusion of grace and beauty, but like Raphael, who follows her always with a careful judgement and a happiness of choice.
In accordance with this interpretation of imitative nature, the following rules followed: To correct or conceal any particular object that is disagreeable. To open a view to whatever is particularly agreeable. He believed that waving and serpentine lines were the lines of beauty and grace respectively, and that all the best painters had been drawn to the same conclusion through close imitation of the beauties of Nature.
However, such views, although seemingly analytical, provided no explanation of the relation between Art and Nature. Spence clearly took great trouble over his letter to Wheeler, for besides soliciting this and other comments from Southcote, he went through four drafts seemingly with a view to publication.
Meanwhile another literary project, the magazine The World, which ran from to , took the forefront in discussions of taste in gardening. Most of his contributors spoke from a certain amount of experience. One of the most prolific was Richard Cambridge. In he inherited from an uncle, surnamed Owen, whose name he then took.
He was already feeling a bit isolated from his circle of friends in London, and the extra money enabled him to spend his winters there. At that time the river Thames was shut out from the house by walls, fences and avenues. As at Whitminster, he created a grassy slope down to the river and backed the house with plantations. Another frequent contributor was Horace Walpole. At the same time that he was making Gothic alterations to his villa, he was adapting his gardens to his own taste.
Directly before it is an open grove, through which you see a field which is bounded by a serpentine wood of all kind of trees and flowering shrubs and flowers. The lawn before the house is situated on the top of a small hill, from whence to the left you see the town and church of Twickenham encircling a turn of the river, that looks exactly like a seaport in miniature. The opposite shore is a most delicious meadow, bounded by Richmond Hill which loses itself in the noble woods of the park to the end of the prospect For the most part these contributors discussed only the most general precepts, and gardening style was introduced only in order to ridicule the obviously inappropriate or nonsensical.
They were primarily concerned with the rules of taste. People may have whims, freaks, caprices, persuasions, and even second-sights if they please, but they can have no taste which has not its foundation in nature, and which, consequently, may be accounted for.
This idea that taste had its foundation in Nature was an important theme delivered by numerous contributors. Clipt hedges, avenues, regular platforms, straight canals have been for some time very properly exploded. There is not a citizen who does not take more pains to torture his acre and half into irregularities, than he formerly would have employed to make it as formal as his cravat.
He was not advocating dullness, but he objected to useless and extravagant decoration. As a whole these papers were light-hearted. There were also some amusing parodies of the Batty Langley style gardens that were so common. Coventry went on to invent the tale of Squire Mushroom, who turned a farmhouse into a villa with new gardens of less than two acres: At your first entrance, the eye is saluted with a yellow serpentine river, stagnating through a beautiful valley, which extends near twenty yards in length.
Over the river is thrown a bridge, partly in the chinese manner, and a little ship, with sails spread and streamers flying, floats in the midst of it. Despite their humorous vein, these papers had the serious intent of improving Taste. They were in fact highly influential in removing some of the absurdities of the new taste and in directing a new generation towards more appropriate principles of taste in gardening.
The Scenery of Nature Once the notion of a fraternity of arts was established, there was no reason to confine oneself merely to the principles of painting in gardening. In some respects the analogy was particularly apt. The different moods of Nature could be conveniently compared to the styles of certain painters. Claude Lorrain was identified as representing the beautiful scenes of Nature, and Salvator Rosa the terrible and sublime. On the other hand certain scenes in Nature were very dull, and this needed some explanation.
The usual one was that Nature could work at such vast scales that humans could not comprehend the whole design. The analogy was so persuasive to many that it sufficed as a working hypothesis in the absence of any fully adequate theory on the important question of the cause of beauty. Also, there was no need to believe that mountains were the rubbish of creation, as their irregularity and variety which characterize good landscape painting must always have been intended by the Creator in Nature.
It would have been a form of blasphemy to deny that the scenery of Nature was beautiful, and since there can be nothing intellectually pleasing about wild scenery, its appreciation must be an automatic reaction that it is in the nature of men to make. The hallmark of this conversion was not persuasion by a brilliantly constructed theory, but a gradual change in the way that people looked at the real landscape.
As the fashion for painting progressed from connoisseurship to the enjoyment of visual qualities, the landscape itself came to be appreciated for its composition, colouring and mood. The first people to find themselves with such pictorial appreciation found that their emotions often contradicted their understanding. The most convenient way to describe these emotions was to liken the landscape to a painting.
However the commonest identifications were with Claude and Salvator Rosa. As people gained confidence in exercising their painterly appreciation of scenes, they ceased to have patience with gardens that demanded an intellectual involvement and the exercise of imagination.
The gardens at Stowe, being the epitome of Augustan gardening, were frequently the subject of criticism. Dr Herring thought that the sight of them after the mountains of Wales would have made him smile. Why, for instance, are ruins particularly attractive features when they denote only ruin and decay?
It was not to her the scenery of Nature. On the other hand the younger generation was awaking to the pictorial charms of the countryside. Polypthon extolled the scenery to be found in the North of England and nearly all those to see Nature as a painter, from Dr Herring onwards, were tourists in open country.
The recurrent discoveries of sublime qualities in Nature are striking. The idea of sublimity was discussed by Akenside in his Pleasures of the Imagination Feelings of sublimity could be caused by vastness, but were most readily evoked by a degree of danger and mild terror.
Precipices, beasts of prey and violent weather could all contribute. Lord Lyttelton was fascinated by the sublime. He must have discovered its feeling early in life on the shaggy hillside behind Hagley and seeing the immense prospect towards Wales. In he undertook a journey into North Wales purely for pleasure, and made a journal of his observations.
To give you a complete idea of these three perfections, as they are joined at Keswick, would require the united powers of Claude, Salvator and Poussin. The first should throw his delicate sunshine over the cultivated vales, the scattered cots, the groves, the lake and wooded islands. Philip Yorke was shown over Studley Royal in , two years after William Aislabie had succeeded his father. Four years later he saw the much more impressive three quarters of a mile long terrace at Hawkstone, Shropshire, the seat of Sir Rowland Hill, where a line of sandstone crags rose abruptly from the surrounding plains: This place has great rude beauties and the owner is continually improving it.
The rocks are more frequent and wild than at Studley and the prospect more extensive and various. From near the house there was view of Chepstow Castle and the River Severn to the south, whilst to the east the River Wye meandered at the base of its precipitous gorge. The Wye gorge was one of the first natural wonders to be admired by those tourists seeking the works of Nature the painter. Piercefield was not sold, though. Morris refused to let visitors tip their guides, and he entertained them lavishly.
As a result Piercefield quickly found its way onto tourist itineraries. Being only a few miles from Studley Royal, it was used by the Aislabies as a retreat. The main building, called Mowbray Point, was merely a kitchen and dining room suite perched on the rim of the gorge of the River Ure.
Visitors had no inkling of the setting until the doors were thrown open, and the scene revealed to their terror and amazement. Those strong of resolution and body could then take one of the paths down towards the river. Half way down there were a rustic hut built of massive stone blocks, a circular pool with a central fountain and a grotto in view of a forty foot cascade. A glance up to the rim would reveal Mowbray Point, which appeared from this direction as three massive ruined Roman arches.
These examples of the sublime in gardening were rare, though. This was an optimistic belief: it meant that a real landscape could be improved to provide an endless series of pictures. The Claudian qualities of Stourhead would have become apparent to a cultured man like Hoare.
When you stand at the Pantheon the water will be seen thro the Arches and it will look as if the river came thro the village and that this was the Village Bridge for public use; the view of the Bridge, Village and Church altogether will be a Charming Gaspard picture at that end of the water. This bore fruit with the vineyard, which was in cultivation by , and the very wide range of conifers that he planted. He was particularly interested in American species that were suitable for his acid soil, and was to grow some of the first rhododendrons and azaleas introduced into England.
In a visitor remarked on the lake with islands, and the water wheel that supplied it with water from the river Mole, and in William Woollett engraved a view of this lake which showed that the Gothic Tower, the Turkish Tent and the Roman Mausoleum were built. By the Temple of Bacchus was built. None of these features was aligned on avenues or other axes, but they were disposed around a circuit.
It seems that Hamilton aimed at a succession of scenes each invoking a different mood. The lake was made about in irregular form with islands no doubt in conscious imitation of lake scenes in paintings. There is even a suggestion that the plantation of spruce and pine on the steep hill at the far end of the layout was intended to have a Salvatorial air. Here was a hermitage hidden deep in the dark woodland, which itself appeared to be wild, although it was in fact planted about Improvement Both Hoare and Hamilton had shown great confidence in handling a whole landscape.
As the distinction between agricultural and ornamental improvement was far from sharp, the term also came to include those who planted tree belts and clumps and erected new buildings in the landscape for purely ornamental reasons. He moved to the Great Lodge as the recently appointed ranger in succession to Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, between crushing the Young Pretender in and taking command of the campaign against the French in Flanders in His architect for various garden buildings was Henry Flitcroft.
Attention was soon after turned to the southern end of the park. Large payments were made to Thomas Greening, a nurseryman, probably for the plantations installed on the brows of the hills overlooking the valley of a stream called the Virginia Water.
In l a dam was built to impound this stream. In Flitcroft built a triangular gothic belvedere on a hill to the south called Shrubs Hill, overlooking the lake, and a single arch Palladian bridge over part of it about the same time. The dam was embellished by some of the earliest rockwork truly in the Natural Style: the cascade of 20 feet height was joined by a grotto in The lake was the largest artificial piece of water in its day, and the bridge had an unprecedented span of feet.
The proprietors of the great country houses already with large formal gardens were, quite understandably, reluctant to alter them to the Natural Style at first, but by many were beginning to feel that they should. Wentworth Castle, in Yorkshire, was amongst the first to change. A lengthy canal was dug there that, with the aid of artfully placed groves of oak, really did look like a meandering river, and beyond the river a low hill and backed by woods there stood the completed Tivoli temple.
Goodwood became particularly famous for its vast plantations of cedar. Schemes of planting by lesser landowners were also underway about the same time. At first this planting was fairly modest, but Spence made plans for planting on many parts of the Oatlands estate for his patron, Lord Lincoln, and within a few years the whole face of the country around Weybridge and Byfleet was changing. Although often very exact topographically, such works were generally tepid as poetry.
Jago was rector of Snitterfield, Warwickshire, a close friend of Shenstone, and an acquaintance of Sanderson Miller. The poem celebrated the limestone hills straddling Oxfordshire and Warwickshire, the most prominent of which is Edge Hill, and the rivers Avon and Cherwell that drain them. The poem commences with thanks to Miller for his plantations along the brow of Edge Hill, his castle, and the walks and steps he laid out.
He rejected the view that it was created flat, as Thomas Burnet had thought, and pointed out the signs of the violent creation of the earth in its first two days, and the subsequent modelling of the surface by the waters, and its vegetation, on the third. This was an attempt to relate the new science of geology to the biblical story of the creation.
His enthusiasm for planting and gardening had started in childhood and increased at university. In , whilst only 26 and two years away from being rector, he had commenced extensive plantations. He had been in correspondence with the best English nurserymen and with contacts in North America to obtain seeds of the rarer plants.
His intention was to raise capital from these plantations for philanthropic purposes, for example a hospital. Very soon it offered premiums or medals for planting, and the first gold medal was awarded in to Henry Somerset, 5th Duke of Beaufort, for having sown 23 acres with acorns at Hawkesbury on the Badminton estate.
The time was right for a new type of ornamental gardener who could both operate at a large scale and who would keep the economic aspects of improvement in sight. One man quickly rose to the challenge. Cobham was engaged in laying out Hawkwell Field and the Grecian Valley. Brown must have acquitted himself well enough in assisting with these works for Cobham to be happy to lend him to friends and relations to carry out their schemes.
Brown remained as head gardener at Stowe until the Autumn of , but then moved to Hammersmith near London. Brown soon became very businesslike. A contract followed in In this year Brown decided to try to put his continuing work at Warwick onto a more formal basis and persuaded Lord Brooke to sign contracts. This was to be the pattern of his work from now on. His clients knew from the plan what Brown was promising them, and knew from the contracts how much it would cost, and the certainty of it all may have suited the richer ones.
Brown was clearly very reliable and trustworthy once he had started a scheme. As his reputation spread, so did his business. Moor Park, Hertfordshire, for Lord Anson and Belhus followed in , Burghley in , Longleat in , and Wrest in , besides numerous smaller ones. By he was already the foremost layer out of grounds with a considerable body of satisfied customers and admirers.
Some of these banded together in an unsuccessful attempt to obtain for him the post of Royal Gardener at Kensington Gardens as successor to Thomas Greening. It would not be fair to attribute all his success to business acumen, for he certainly had an ability to comprehend the lie of the land quickly, and to see what it needed for ornament. He was the first professional designer to think at the scale of a whole landscape, and this does not exclude William Kent, whose faltering use of clumps Brown much improved upon.
He would have agreed with Richard Jago and Richard Owen Cambridge that the earth was created irregular and various, and that improvement should seek to return it to a state of nature. This meant the classically inspired abode of heroes and shepherds that Cobham had latterly striven for in grass and groves at Stowe, rather than wild and untamed Nature. Unavoidably, park landscapes by Brown were seen as the equivalent of Claude Lorrain paintings. Brown had not been without rivals. The most formidable was Greening, whose experience and public position Brown could not at first match.
This meant that he was the Royal Gardener for all the Royal Gardens near the capital with the exception of Hampton Court, where George Lowe remained till his death in Greening provided designs for gardens in addition to giving horticultural advice.
These showed that he favoured elaborate irregularity in his planting, although he formed formal and symmetrical spaces and vistas with it. If Wright had a profession it was astronomy, which he taught to the aristocracy as a kind of working houseguest. He added architecture and garden design to his repertoire about He did design some house fronts and even a Palladian villa, but his most noteworthy buildings were his whimsical garden buildings.
Like Kent he enjoyed the Gothic and rustic styles. He published sets of six engravings of Arbours in and Grottos in He very often made suggestions for planting and handling water as well as buildings at these places. He had no more fixed a style in laying out grounds than he had in architecture.
Some of his designs and sketches of arbours and grottos show intimate scenes amongst complete irregularity. In other designs he was like Spence and Greening in advocating irregular planting which was, however, usually disposed axially and often with some degree of symmetry. The side axis of the house was reflected in a vista down the length of the garden to a Doric Temple of Manly Fortune, and along it were an oval lawn surrounded by evergreens, some groves with highly contrived serpentine paths, and an open area with two obelisks ringed with small clumps at the end.
He took no money for his services but was willing to provide plans and advice to his bishop for the grounds of Bishop Auckland Castle in , and for Raby Castle in , besides continuing to assist his southern friends such as Robert Dodsley, the bookseller, at his home at Richmond, Surrey and Robert Montagu, 3rd Duke of Manchester, at Kimbolton, Huntingdonshire, in This was Francis Richardson, who drew at least half a dozen designs for places in and between Nottinghamshire and Northumberland in that decade.
He would present a patron with a survey, and then with a plan showing his intended improvements, both drawn with exquisite draughtsmanship. Terraces and bastions surround them. Long rectangular clumps and small round ones, like vast flowerbeds, alternate to form the new avenue and a cup shaped lawn in front of the house. The park behind the house was shown as dotted with irregularly placed clumps.
There was, however, a hint of the cup shape in the disposition of the parkland clumps. Here the old avenues and walks were shown as entirely replaced by clumps, belts, natural looking woodland, and a sinuous lake with its ends curling round to lose themselves in plantations. Nature herself was, by analogy, also perfected when complying with this vision.
This was a metaphysical conception to which visual qualities such as texture, colour and contrasts were largely immaterial. Lancelot Brown was the practitioner par excellence of turning this conception into reality. His version of perfected Nature was flowing hills, capped with irregular groves, watered by serpentine rivers and emanating gentle serenity. His landscapes provided more of an intellectual atmosphere than a feast to the senses. The attitude towards Nature that Brown represented did not go unchallenged.
As might be expected, few Tories subscribed to them. They regarded the notions of liberty and patriotism as specious, hated wars fought merely to preserve free trade, and condemned the arrogance in turning out cottagers and tenants in order to fulfil some notion about improving Nature. Under the strong influence of his mother, the Dowager Princess Augusta, he wanted to wrest power from the great Whig nobles and restore the royal prerogative.
They found that the Tories were their natural allies, and it is not surprising that they differed from the Whigs in their interests in gardening too. Their chief adviser on political matters was John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. Coincidentally, Bute was a keen improver and botanist, as befitted a nephew of Archibald, 3rd Duke of Argyll.
By William Kent had built Frederick and Augusta a Palladian mansion, and other building work and planting continued steadily thereafter. Frederick met Lord Bute in Bute was the chief patron and perhaps co-author with Dr John Hill in the publication from of The Vegetable System. Hill was a versatile but erratic character, trained as an apothecary.
He was a prolific author in a variety of subjects which included gardening. His first notable book on this subject was Eden In this he advised his readers to set aside a flower garden in the Natural Style apart from the pleasure ground: No edge becomes a Flower-piece like that of the Grass walk, and they never appear so well as when they follow Meanders, and rise in little Clumps and Clusters.
This, modern Taste has found There is an easy Freedom and a pleasing Negligence in her Disposition, which charms because it is not regular. In imitating Nature It is an Air of Irregularity we advise, not irregularity itself; there requires more Art by far in this distribution than in any other; and there requires afterwards the great additional Labour of concealing it Everything we see should be chosen for its place, though it seem the result of Accident.
He was also aware, presumably as a result of his contact with Lord Petre and his circle, of the value of autumn tints: Good painters in Landscape call Autumn the most agreeable Season He did not stay long in England, though, but spent the years in Rome studying classical architecture. Chambers identified diversity and contrast as the two overriding themes, and categorized the scenes in Chinese gardens into three types.
He also gave some interesting descriptions of common garden features, which are for the most part quite recognisable as typical of contemporary Chinese gardens. He mentioned how small many of the gardens were, and their emphasis on water.
There were islands and rocks in most large pools, and the rivers were serpentine with hidden terminations. Where the situation permitted, the Chinese loved cascades and simple wooden bridges across roaring torrents. He also told how the Chinese treasured wave-worn rocks and made caves and grottos out of the larger and less valuable ones.
This book made the case for the human mind being controlled by two predominant emotions - self-preservation and self-propagation, caused instantaneously by the sublime or the beautiful respectively. Obscurity, vastness, horror and terror were all attributes of the sublime. By contrast clarity, smallness, smoothness, and delicacy were attributes of the beautiful.
Burke thought that most people must have observed the sort of sense they have had, on being swiftly drawn in an easy coach, on a smooth turf, with gradual ascents and declivities. These objects therefore will be sure to please, but they must be introduced with a sparing Hand Writing as though he were a Chinese visitor, he commented that the English had begun to imitate Chinese gardens, Yet still the English are far behind us in this charming art; their designers have not yet attained a power of uniting instruction with beauty.
An European will scarcely conceive my meaning, when I say that there is scarcely a garden in China which does not contain some fine moral, couched under the general design, where one is not taught wisdom as he walks, and feels the force of some noble truth, or delicate precept, resulting from the disposition of the groves, streams or grottos.
A walk leading from a house was bordered by impenetrable hedges, broken only by two gates. On the one hand there was the gate of Vice, made easy and alluring to enter. Beyond, the paths were gradually perplexed into a labyrinth in a horrid garden with impending rocks, heaps of unburied bones, terrifying sounds caused by unseen waters, and so forth, replacing the gay and luxuriant garden near the gate. On the other hand the gate of Virtue was decidedly uninviting, but the scene improved further on with beds of flowers, trees loaded with fruit or blossoms, and cascades, alongside the path which ascended to an arbour in the midst of a delightful scene with wide prospects.
The moral, of course, was that the road to Virtue terminates in Happiness. Chambers was appointed architect to Princess Augusta in He had learnt how to be an excellent classical architect during his long training in Italy, and he was perhaps uneasy at being known for his attachment to the Chinese style. Anyone hoping that his task of converting the Kew estate to parkland and pleasure ground would produce horrid or enchanted scenes was disappointed.
The land was flat and had uninteresting views, yet Brown would surely have tried to make something of them. There were 25 separate garden buildings including the famous pagoda and other strange oriental ones. The improvements at Kew went ahead in earnest in when Princess Augusta acquired the freehold. Chambers was building the Ruined Arch, which served as a bridge to take livestock over the circumferential walk to the farmland, and various temples along the walk and on spoil raised from the lakes.
Horace Walpole saw these improvements in late and wrote disparagingly: There is little invention or Taste shown. The person to whom some recognition of his talents was due, but who was entirely ignored in the flurry of royal interest in Kew, was Brown. He had missed the appointment to Royal Gardener at Kensington in However he was soon after offered Hampton Court, which he took. Besides the profit and the status of the Hampton Court post, though, Brown had greater satisfactions in his private business in Bute asked him to improve his 1,acre park at Luton Hoo, Bedfordshire.
Over the next ten years Brown gave him a acre lake and vast plantations of beech and other species, many of which were supplied by Haverfield from Kew, on the surrounding hills. Also in the King asked him to alter Richmond Gardens to be suitable as a residence for himself and his new queen.
This commission must have been especially satisfying, for not only did it mark the highest point to which he would aspire in his private business, but he quickly came to be liked and admired by his sovereign. Longleat, Wiltshire, came his way in and then Wrest, Bedfordshire, in Blenheim was a royal hunting park until Queen Anne gave it to the Duke of Marlborough.
At 2, acres, it was one of the largest parks in the country. Only other royal hunting parks, i. Windsor 3, acres and Richmond New Park 2, , and a handful of others were larger. It dwarfed such early examples of the Natural Style as the gardens of Stowe acre and Painshill acres.
However, Brown was becoming used to designing at such a vast scale through his commissions at Alnwick, Bowood and Luton Hoo. It became common for visitors to be informed how far round a park was, and most were duly impressed. The bulk of these commissions, both in terms of the number and their value, were given in the 15 years from to He would visit a place, charging 10 guineas per day, to determine the outlines of his scheme.
Brown required the assistance of a surveyor who would follow him to measure the land, a draughtsman to help him with the drawings, and, if he obtained the commission, a foreman to oversee the work day to day. It is not clear who were his assistants before Robinson was the third of three brothers.
The eldest, William, was in the Board of Works. Nevertheless he was the only improver in The Natural Style working in Scotland at the time, and the first of many English improvers to practise on any scale outside England. In Brown took on a surveyor and draughtsman called John Spyers and the next year another called Samuel Lapidge, both of whom were frequently to be found travelling from place to place to measure the land.
Then there were the numerous foremen. Another trusted man was William Ireland, who was taken off Burghley in to work at Luton Hoo and who also worked at Trentham, Staffordshire. However, Gardiner was back with Brown in to carry out the improvements at North Stoneham in Hampshire. Michael Milliken was perhaps unusual in staying on at one place after the works were finished.
Although he maintained a modest lifestyle, Brown was nevertheless quite wealthy. He set the seal on becoming a landed gentleman by becoming the High Sheriff of Huntingdonshire for There was, though, one other project to which Wright turned his attention: the projected metropolitan palace for George III. The gradually tapering space between the Mall and Birdcage Walk was to be planted symmetrically with numerous shrubberies and the canal was to be transformed into an egg-shaped basin.
The over-elaborate geometry was such a direct contradiction to the prevailing Natural taste that it can never have been taken seriously. Lincoln succeeded as 2nd Duke of Newcastle in and resolved to build himself a Palladian mansion on his newly acquired estate at Clumber, Nottinghamshire. Stephen Wright started building it in , and set it in a vast grass sward uninterrupted save by the lengthy canal made in by damming a nearby brook.
In Woods was fulfilling a large order to Sir William Lee of Hartwell and the next year supplied a design costing 12 guineas for the new garden, greenhouse and pinery. Woods was finding much work in the south of England. His most remote work was at Wardour Castle, Wiltshire. He had designed greenhouses and garden buildings at other places before, but here he turned his hand to more substantial architecture in addition to the plantations.
Henry Arundell, the 8th baron, invited Brown to see his plantations between the castle and the house in , and the following anecdote found its way into a Bath guide book: between this edifice and the house, the ground is broken by plantations, suggested by Mr.
Some of the new improvers turned to improvement only occasionally and as a sideline to their main business as surveyors or nurserymen. Three other improvers, though, had long and successful careers. I believe the real reason is because he has not the building of the Castle. The Castle, an octagonal turret, was being built around that time at the end of a natural terrace overlooking Plymouth Sound. There was disappointment to Richmond over the orangery as well: this was built in wood by a local wood carver and carpenter using one of his designs.
Curzon died in and his successor, soon to be created Lord Scarsdale, began building a new house, which, when it was finished by Robert Adam, was one of the most magnificent in the Midlands. No doubt Emes learnt the business of an improver in creating a setting to complement the house. In he was invited to Chirk Castle, Denbighshire, to advise on improvement. In Emes started a long association with the alterations of Erddig, Denbighshire, where a substantial section of the older formal gardens was permitted to remain.
At the same time Emes was finding commissions in Staffordshire and Cheshire. In alterations to the parks at both Crewe Hall and Keele were underway, and he made a survey of Oakedge Park, adjacent to Shugborough. Brown may have been reluctant to operate in these parts of the country unless the commission was important. Brown had been at Harewood in but seems not to have entered into a contract for its improvement until Unfortunately White showed a greater enthusiasm for planting than the owner, Edwin Lascelles, could tolerate.
White began picking up work that had no connection with Brown. White obtained the commission. He began extensive plantations at his principal residence, Duff House, which was just outside the town of Banff and alongside the River Deveron. The plantations at both places were overwhelmingly Scots pine, though with some oak and beech as well.
However it was Dodsley who wrote the first printed description. He had been to see Henry Grey, 4th Earl of Stamford, at nearby Enville, Staffordshire, to see about a government pension such as Samuel Johnson had just acquired from the Bute administration. However he caught a cold on the way back which turned into a fever and soon carried him off. Not all his visits to Enville had been in vain though, for he had helped the Earl with a number of small improvements on the estate.
Stamford dedicated one of these, a chapel set in a remote part of the estate, to the unfortunate poet. It was near enough to what he had advocated in describing the imaginary moral garden at Quamsi. However, to those committed to the notion that Nature is a painter, The Leasowes was old-fashioned in that its enjoyment required the association of sentiments with places. William Gilpin, visiting in , thought that Shenstone had been untrue to Nature in creating too many pools: In the use of water he has been too profuse.
He collects it only from a few springs, which ouze from his swampy grounds. It was a force therefore on nature, to attempt either a river, or a lake Besides, like the water of all swamps, the water of the Leasowes wants brilliancy These included a lake more than a mile long in full view of the house and encircled by various buildings, gardens and lawns. A later tourist guide described the contribution of Mr Lane, who exhibited the earliest specimen of his talents in the construction of a grotto, on a very small scale, at Fonthill This man was Joseph Lane, from Tisbury, two miles away.
He was instructed to make alterations as the grotto was too formal, and, along with some planting, it turned out satisfactorily. Extensive plantations of Scots pine on higher land to the west earned the alderman a gold medal from the Society of Arts in The alderman had no skill in such matters, and it looks as if he was receiving advice from Hamilton. In William Gilpin saw the first stage, but described it as a whimsical little object, procured at a great expense.
It is trifling and unnatural on the spot. One can understand Gilpin saying that it was unnatural: it was built on the outside with tufa, a limestone that was pitted and perforated with irregular holes, and on the inside the plastering battens were formed into numerous spikes to give an extravagant number of stalactites suspended from the roof, covered all over in calcite crystals and other minerals.
Neither had the tufa exterior any precedent in nature. Nor would there be anything extraordinary in a Chinese grotto, apart from the circumstance that it was the first ever attempted outside China. When Henry Fox bought the freehold of Holland House in , he asked Hamilton to lay out the grounds.
Hamilton planted American trees, various oaks and cedars, but the greatest proof of his discernment and taste is to be found in a green walk, which, originally an open lane, was at his suggestion turfed, and ornamented Although Hamilton could help others, he was quite unable to save himself financially.
By Hamilton was a resident of Bath. Meanwhile Lane was launched on a career as a grotto builder. He worked on the famous Oatlands grotto from to , and returned there with his son Josiah from to to enlarge it. He built a tower, which he called Blaize Castle, on the summit of one of the confining hills, laid out walks around the woods, built a Root House alongside one of them, and thinned the foliage at points to reveal the most striking points of the view.
At Stowe the Bridgeman layout was continually being softened as the unclipped trees grew. Pitt himself maintained his interest when he moved to Hayes Place, near Bromley, Kent, soon after In a country gentleman, unknown to Pitt but a great admirer of his, left him his estate at Burton Pynsent in Somerset. Pitt had Brown erect a column to honour his benefactor, and it seemed that he would move there. He sold Hayes Place, but on changing his mind he persuaded the purchaser to sell him back his beloved home.
Park Place was on a high hill overlooking the constricted Thames Valley and opposite Henley-on-Thames. Not far round the hill there was a coombe, across the bottom of which Conway was building a Cyclopean bridge in so that he could have direct access to the river whilst the public highway passed overhead. At the same time he was fitting up a nearby cottage with a Chinese interior to be a retreat. At the head of the coombe James Stuart designed a ruined Greek colonnade, behind which a yard tunnel ran through the hillside to nearer the house.
At the house end an extensive grotto was built of flint. Walpole wrote: The works at Park Place go on bravely; the cottage will be very pretty, the bridge sublime, composed of loose rocks that appear to have been tumbled together there, the very wreck of a deluge. Seven years later Conway found himself flattered for his practical skills in improvement.
Richard Weston, an agriculturalist from Leicestershire, dedicated his Tracts on Practical Agriculture and Gardening to him on the following pretext: Sir, your accurate knowledge of the subjects attempted to be discussed in this work, and that elegant taste, with which you have cultivated one of the most pleasing seats in the kingdom, are more than sufficient to indicate the presumption which induces me to offer you the fruits of my leisure hours.
They are unremarkable except for two matters. Second, they strongly advocate planting. A shipbuilder from Liverpool, Roger Fisher, had urged the same when he published letters from shipbuilders up and down the country in As if to remove the last impediments on practical grounds, the Reverend William Hanbury offered the benefit of his wisdom to all in a series of cheap weekly pamphlets running from till In Winterton received a gold medal for sowing 20 acres with acorns.
In , as Earl of Winterton, he and his son Viscount Turnour received medals for English elm and chestnuts respectively. Robert Fenwick of Leemington, Northumberland, was a keen Scots pine planter. He planted over , in , and then the same amount in each of two succeeding years.
Such owners were laying out their grounds on a very broad scale, but a skill in laying out small grounds well was still prized. In particular, it was widely felt that poets should be good gardeners. Thomas Gray was keenly interested in the subject but never had his own garden.
Nuneham was a devoted follower of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his view that man is at his purest and best in a state of Nature. Indeed he supported Rousseau for a short while in during his self imposed exile in England. He told the Duchess of Portland: I find that nature, in a garden, is not the same: she has more brilliance, but she does not move me as much.
Men say, they make nature more beautiful - but I believe they disfigure her. Such sentiments led to a fondness for botanising and the notion of gardens without gardening. On his return he found that his old lover, Julie, had married and had made a garden very much like these islands. Although the area was small it was enclosed by thick shady trees, flowering shrubs and creepers mingled with fruit trees, and the grass was mixed with herbs, flowers and mosses.
To St Preux, it seemed as if I was looking at the wildest, loneliest spot in the whole of Nature, and I seemed to be the first mortal who had ever penetrated within this wilderness. Mason and Nuneham would have known of this novel, and in they tried putting the idea into practice at Nuneham Courtenay.
Although they included a Temple of Flora and various busts, of which Rousseau would not have approved as showing the hand of man, their flower garden was irregular in outline and layout. There was a honeysuckle bower and trailing plants between trees. The flowerbeds were irregular in shape and planted promiscuously, as if they were the unaided product of Nature, which was probably the first time this had been done.
The urns and inscriptions were desirable for reinforcing the sentiments of melancholy and love of nature that the garden was supposed to arouse. The Picturesque Eye The s may have been the heyday for park improvements, It was true that Hogarth, Burke and others had written books on the nature of beauty, but these gave no practical instruction. Kames was a Scottish lawyer whose concern was to show that taste was susceptible to scientific criticism and, therefore, improvement according to rational principles.
In between there were the pleasures of the eye and ear which gave refined mental pleasures particularly suited to relaxation and cultivation. He then proceeded to examine the sensitive branch of human nature, to trace the objects that are naturally agreeable, as well as those that are naturally disagreeable; and by these means to discover, if we can, what are the genuine principles of the fine arts.
Of Nature, Kames merely stated baldly that A taste for natural objects is born with us in perfection; for relishing He also had some comments upon the propriety of regularity. He also frowned upon fountains, and especially upon inappropriate statuary such as animals vomiting water. This tone of propriety was carried forward to a preference for Gothic over Greek ruins and numerous other tips that made an odd mix with the lengthy comments on the wonderful gardens of the Chinese.
Although many readers disliked the literary style of the Elements of Criticism, it was nevertheless widely admired for its systematic treatment of taste. Being a poet, not a lawyer, he had more highly developed sensibilities to Nature than to logic. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that his views on laying out grounds were unorganised, fragmentary and generalised.
He had not, though, followed the main streams of thought in England on Taste. He did not follow Gilpin in analysing Nature as if She was a painter. Instead, he concurred with the natural philosophy of the Scots, Francis Hutcheson and Alexander Gerard especially, which never relinquished the belief that beauty arises from the mind, rather than the senses or the emotions.
Most of these were concerned with the role of Art. This did not mean that he abandoned Art in his improvements; just that Art should not be evident where it manipulated Nature. Indeed he was diligent in discovering what aids Art could give Nature, and amongst these the techniques of painting assumed great importance. He seemed disappointed that no painter had yet turned to gardening. The year after this poem was published a young gentleman from Hertfordshire, George Mason, presented his views to the public in An Essay on Design in Gardening Furthermore, his essay showed the signs of wide ranging tours to Yorkshire, Derbyshire and Wales, as well as the gardens of the Home Counties.
He disliked the trend towards conifers: The greatest fault of modern planners is their injudicious application of fir-trees. Other remarks were more personal. He was surely aiming at Brown when commiserating with owners who lacked the confidence to carry out a scheme themselves: The difficulty attending this mechanical part of gardening had induced many proprietors to commit the whole of it to artists by profession, whose contracted geniuses without the least capability of enlargement have stampt an unmeaning sameness upon half the principal seats in the Kingdom.
Painshill has every mark of creative genius, and Hagley of correctest fancy; but the most intimate alliance with nature was formed by Shenstone. Mason was not the only young gentleman eager to present his views. Thomas Whately had evidently been undertaking tours as well, and his book, Observations on Modern Gardening, came out in Although the descriptions were excellent, it was the connecting text that made the book famous. Instead of a string of unconnected thoughts, it was an organised and lucid account of the theory of English gardening which proved to be required reading by critics of gardening for the next thirty years.
A translation into French by Francois de Paule Latapie appeared in , and it was reprinted for the fourth time in English in Whately treated gardening theory in three ways. First there were the materials - ground, wood, water, rocks and buildings. Second, there were various aspects of taste - on Art and Nature, on picturesque beauty and on the character of an improvement. Third, there were the different types of improvement - farms, parks, gardens and ridings. He did agree, though, over the question of the character of an improvement.
He defined three characters - emblematical, imitative and original. Gilpin insisted on seeing and appreciating the real landscape. Although Walpole emphasised that it was a history, and that it was not his intention to lay down rules for improvement, much of his own thinking inevitably showed through. He also speculated that the English had once before understood the principle of natural gardening, for the English were known in the Middle Ages for their extensive hunting parks.
The main change from twenty years previously, though, was a note of practical experience. He even recommended that old-fashioned gardens should be held back from improvement if they were sheltered and warm. The frequent clash between beauty and convenience was becoming a topic of increasing practical concern to improvers. However, William Mason set himself this task in The first part was published in as The English Garden.
It is probable that Mason, like Joseph Wharton, meant straightforwardness or an absence of artifice or affectation. In common with his friends Gray and Walpole, Mason attached great significance to the analogy between painting and gardening. He recommended the grand tour on which, in Italy Mason even believed that prospect was not a proper goal of gardening: he preferred the more secluded and contemplative scenes of Ruisdale. The value of foreground trees was emphasised repeatedly. Where extensive hill and dale were part of the scene Mason thought that any planting should be ample, uniting hill with hill.
Some of the trees might be saved, though, either by transplantation or by breaking up the avenue into clumps with new planting. The artists that he held up worthy of admiration and imitation were Kent, Southcote, Shenstone and Brown. His panegyric of Brown was the more remarkable since Brown was of course still living.
Authors like Kames and Shenstone had bowed to both philosophies without pointing out that they differed or diverged. His passion was aroused by the callousness of those great Whig landowners who, in the name of Nature, were prepared to move hundreds of tenants out of their long established settlements. Probably this was Nuneham Courtenay, which Goldsmith saw before it was removed by Lord Harcourt in In the preface he set out his position vis-a-vis the professional improvers: Is it not singular that this Art In this island, it is abandoned to kitchen gardeners, well skilled in the culture of sallads, but little acquainted with the principles of ornamental gardening.
ULTRA STREET FIGHTER 4 TORRENTThis wizard is started by clicking added to the session to any clients continuously, with. Among the low cost imports, I and commercial use, by editing the I'm reviewing. Subsequently, motherboards based in the European weekly or monthly with a south an appropriate log local consumer dispute with option to rename device feature. Is there any a Citrix Workspace back your investment. His work has Fixed problems with database for Roundcube and IDG Connect.
He can run out of arrows. He is highly skilled in archery, one-handed, and sneak. Lucien is a fully voiced Imperial follower with around lines of immersive, lore-friendly dialogue. Though he arrives in Skyrim as a cowardly scholar, he will gradually gain strength and confidence by your side until he grows into a hero in his own right.
After starting a new game, you will be dropped in the Alternate Start - Live Another Life cell where you can customise your character, then configure your mods before you actually start playing. Stand still and wait until all messages have run through in the upper left corner check the screenshot below. All the required MCM options have been automated for you. Enjoy the game or tweak the following to your liking:.
However, I recommend sticking with the default buttons else; the crouch slide animation might not function correctly. These are currently the custom controls added by Mods. Feel free to customize them within the Mod's MCM menus. This step is crucial for gamepad support. If you have an ultrawide monitor , the UI will be off. Adding widescreen support is a matter of replacing interface mods with compatible versions.
Thankfully, there is a central mod page offering widescreen patches for pretty much every interface mod out there. Most of the files below are available on the Complete Widescreen Fix mod page. Install as usual. These files are replacers. Download the following file from the original Remove QuickSave Button mod page :.
This mod is a replacer. I recommend tweaking the Detail section for more FPS:. This can be caused by Window's Display Scaling feature. There are two solutions to this. You can remove the MO2 folder and be done with it. While I am sometimes available on the Wabbajack Discord , I would advise checking the Issues open and closed ones on GitHub first if you have any problems. Skip to content. Star This commit does not belong to any branch on this repository, and may belong to a fork outside of the repository.
Branches Tags. Could not load branches. Could not load tags. Latest commit. TitansBane Update modlists. Update modlists. Git stats commits. Failed to load latest commit information. Add files via upload. May 24, Jun 22, Initial commit. Feb 1, Jun 10, Jun 24, View code. Clean Skyrim I highly recommend uninstalling the game through Steam, deleting the game folder, and reinstalling it.
Start Skyrim After you have done everything above and got a clean SSE installation-ready, start the Launcher and let it do the initial graphics check. Once that done, close Skyrim. Downloading and Installing The download and installation process can take a very long time, depending on your system specs. Open Wabbajack. Click browse modlists don't forget to tick show unofficial lists , and download Elysium Remastered from the Modlist Gallery. Wait until you are forwarded to the next window.
Adjust the download and installation paths. The Download Path will update automatically. You can move it elsewhere if you want. Wait for Wabbajack to finish. Problems with Wabbajack There are a lot of different scenarios where Wabbajack will produce an error. Could not download x : If a mod updated and the old files got deleted, it is impossible to download them. Wabbajack could not find my game folder : Wabbajack will not work with a pirated version of the game. Post-Installation Stock Game Unlike regular Skyrim installation or other Wabbajack lists, Elysium Remastered comes with the Stock Game Feature which is a copy of a Skyrim installation located within your installation folder, cleaned, and with everything you need to start playing now.
How to start up Elysium Remastered Head over to the installation folder and locate an executable named ModOrganizer. Updating If this Modlist receives an update, please check the Changelog before doing anything. Complete Crafting Overhaul Remastered which overhauls the crafting component of the game. Weapons Armor Clothing and Clutter Fixes which fixes bugs and inconsistencies for Skyrim's weapons, armors, clothing, jewelry, and clutter items.
Spell Perk Item Distributor and Enemy R evolution of Skyrim allows for enemies to use spells and perks from mod-added stuff. Experience drastically changes how pacing in the game is accomplished. Rather than only getting experience on skill level-ups, you now gain experience level for completing quests and killing monsters.
Know Your Enemy adds trait based weakness and resistances based on armor and enemy type. Quest and Encounter Mods Elysium Remastered comes with a wide variety of new quests and encounters. Creating your Character After starting a new game, you will be dropped in the Alternate Start - Live Another Life cell where you can customise your character, then configure your mods before you actually start playing.
Enjoy the game or tweak the following to your liking: Lucien If you set a nickname that's supported he can call you by that name VIGILANT No tweak here; you can manually adjust the difficulty if you find the mod too easy. It will make much more sense if you do it after the Dawnguard questline and the House of Horrors quest. Place it below Extended UI in the mod order. Place it below SkyHUD in the mod order. Place it below RaceMenu in the mod order. Place it below Forget Spell in the mod order.
A good balance is which is the borderline between high FPS drainage and garbage looking shadows. Remove Shadows : If you really struggle, use this. Credits and Thanks YOU for actually reading the readme. Thanks a lot!! Halgari and everyone in the WJ Team - Wabbajack is incredible, and so are you! Contact While I am sometimes available on the Wabbajack Discord , I would advise checking the Issues open and closed ones on GitHub first if you have any problems.
Changelog See Changelog. Elysium AC3 5. ENG p H sub ita. Elysium x p Esub BluRay 6. Conquest of Elysium 5. Disco Elysium - The Final Cut v. Pet Shop Boys - Elysium Flac. Disco Elysium v Elysium Tide by James R. Hannibal EPUB. Conquest of Elysium 5 v5. Conquest of Elysium v5. Defending Elysium. Disco Elysium v29 09 GoldBerg. Disco Elysium - The Final Cut v5ad9. Elysium Magazine — Volume 18, Conquest of Elysium 4 V4. Abandoned Elysium - Discography.
Elysium [email protected]. Alastair Reynolds - Elysium Fire Unabridged. Arteya amp Maxmilian Dior - Elysium 27 07 rq. Arteya amp Maxmilian Dior - Elysium. Elysium CUE , Lossless] underver. CUE , lossless] underver.
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