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User agents must swap the computed value of the startpoint and endpoint of the range in order to forbid decreasing ranges. Both endpoints are inclusive. The ranges are used in the Font Matching Algorithm below. The value for these font face style attributes is used in place of the style implied by the underlying font data. This allows authors to combine faces in flexible combinations, even in situations where the original font data was arranged differently.
User agents that implement synthetic bolding and obliquing must only apply synthetic styling in cases where the font descriptors imply this is needed, rather than based on the style attributes implied by the font data. However, variation values applied to fonts defined with ' font-face' will be clamped to both the values specified in these descriptors as well as the values supported by the font file itself. Unstyled text would display using the regular face defined in the font-face rule:.
However, italic text would display in most user agents using synthetically obliqued glyphs from the regular face, since a separate italic face is not defined:. The second font-face rule defines the font resource baskerville-italic.
Thus, the text will display using glyphs designed by a type designer rather than using synthetically obliqued glyphs from the regular face:. See the section on font matching for more complete details of the process used to select a particular face within a font family. This descriptor defines the set of Unicode codepoints that may be supported by the font face for which it is declared.
The union of these ranges defines the set of codepoints that serves as a hint for user agents when deciding whether or not to download a font resource for a given text run. Ranges that do not fit one of the these forms are invalid and cause the declaration to be ignored.
Individual codepoints are written using hexadecimal values that correspond to Unicode character codepoints. Unicode codepoint values must be between 0 and 10FFFF inclusive. For interval ranges, the start and end codepoints must be within the range noted above and the end codepoint must be greater than or equal to the start codepoint.
Wildcard ranges that extend beyond the range of Unicode codepoints are invalid. Because of this, the maximum number of trailing '? Within the comma-delimited list of Unicode ranges in a unicode-range descriptor declaration, ranges may overlap. The union of these ranges defines the set of codepoints for which the corresponding font may be used. User agents must not download or use the font for codepoints outside this set. User agents may normalize the list of ranges into a list that is different but represents the same set of codepoints.
The associated font might not contain glyphs for the entire set of codepoints defined by the unicode-range descriptor. This allows authors to define supported ranges in terms of broad ranges without worrying about the precise codepoint ranges supported by the underlying font. Multiple font-face rules with different unicode ranges for the same family and style descriptor values can be used to create composite fonts that mix the glyphs from different fonts for different scripts.
This can be used to combine fonts that only contain glyphs for a single script e. Latin, Greek, Cyrillic or it can be used by authors as a way of segmenting a font into fonts for commonly used characters and less frequently used characters. Since the user agent will only pull down the fonts it needs this helps reduce page bandwidth.
If the unicode ranges overlap for a set of font-face rules with the same family and style descriptor values, the rules are ordered in the reverse order they were defined; the last rule defined is the first to be checked for a given character. In this case the user agent first checks the unicode-range for the font containing Latin characters DroidSans.
The user agent again first checks the unicode-range of the font containing Latin characters. For this character however the Latin font does not have a matching glyph, so the effective unicode-range used for font matching excludes this code point.
Next, the user agent evaluates the Japanese font. Next the fallback font is considered. The font-face rule for the fallback font does not define unicode-range so its value defaults to the range of all Unicode code points. The fallback font is downloaded and used to render the arrow character. These descriptors define initial settings that apply when the font defined by an font-face rule is rendered.
They do not affect font selection. Values are identical to those defined for the corresponding font-feature-settings and font-variation-settings properties defined below except that the CSS-wide keywords are omitted. These descriptors set features and variation values on the font object which the font-face rule represents, rather than on an entire element. If no such named instance exists, this descriptor is treated as if it has a value of auto. Note: Because the variation axis values supplied in the font-weight , font-stretch , and font-style properties are applied before the value in the font-named-instance descriptor, there is no need to change the value of those properties when a named instance is desired.
The font-face rule is designed to allow lazy loading of font resources that are only downloaded when used within a document. A stylesheet can include font-face rules for a library of fonts of which only a select set are used; user agents must only download those fonts that are referred to within the style rules applicable to a given page.
User agents that download all fonts defined in font-face rules without considering whether those fonts are in fact used within a page are considered non-conformant. In cases where textual content is loaded before downloadable fonts are available, user agents must render text according to the font-display descriptor of that font-face block. In cases where the font download fails, user agents must display the text visibly. Authors are advised to use fallback fonts in their font lists that closely match the metrics of the downloadable fonts to avoid large page reflows where possible.
Load a font from stream according to its type. Note: The implications of this for authors are that fonts will typically not be loaded cross-origin unless authors specifically takes steps to permit cross-origin loads.
For other schemes, no explicit mechanism to allow cross-origin loading, beyond what is permitted by the fetch algorithm, is defined or required. Fonts defined with the src descriptor values below will be loaded:. Fonts defined with the src descriptor values below will fail to load:.
The font-display descriptor for font-face determines how a font face is displayed, based on whether and when it is downloaded and ready to use. They may also provide the ability for users to override author-chosen behavior with something more desirable; for example, forcing all fonts to have a 0s block period.
Note: Many browsers have a default policy similar to that specified by block. This value must only be used when rendering text in a particular font is required for the page to be usable. It must only be used for small pieces of text. However, the fallback font is used eventually , as having confusing letters scattered around the page is better than having links and such never show up at all.
This value should only be used when rendering text in a particular font is very important for the page, but rendering in any font will still get a correct message across. It should only be used for small pieces of text. This value is appropriate to use for large pieces of text. Otherwise, the font is treated as if its block period and swap period both expired before it finished loading. If the font is not used due to this, the user agent may choose to abort the font download, or download it with a very low priority.
If the user agent believes it would be useful for the user, it may avoid even starting the font download, and proceed immediately to using a fallback font. An optional font must never cause the layout of the page to "jump" as it loads in. This value should be used for body text, or any other text where the chosen font is purely a decorative "nice-to-have". It should be used anytime it is more important that the web page render quickly on first visit, than it is that the user wait a longer time to see everything perfect immediately.
Users on very slow connections might not ever receive the "intended" experience, but optional ensures they can actually use the site, rather than quitting and going elsewhere because the site takes too long to load. These heuristics cannot be relied upon by authors, however; it must be understood that the optional value can result in the font never being used. If a somewhat higher assurance of the font being used is needed, authors should consider using the fallback value.
The font-display descriptor for font-feature-values determines how a font family is displayed, by setting the "default" font-display value for font-face rules targeting the same font family. When font-display is omitted in an font-face rule, the user agent uses the font-display value set via font-feature-values for the relevant font-family if one is set, and otherwise defaults to font-display: auto.
This mechanism can be used to set a default display policy for an entire font-family, and enables developers to set a display policy for font-face rules that are not directly under their control. For example, when a font is served by a third-party font foundry, the developer does not control the font-face rules but is still able to set a default font-display policy for the provided font-family.
The ability to set a default policy for an entire font-family is also useful to avoid the ransom note effect i. This descriptor defines initial settings that apply when the font defined by an font-face rule is rendered. It does not affect font selection. Values are identical to those defined for the font-language-override property defined below except that the value inherit is omitted. The ascent-override , descent-override and line-gap-override descriptors define the ascent metric , descent metric and line gap metric of the font, respectively.
When the descriptor value is normal , the corresponding metric value is obtained from the font file directly. Note: User agents may draw data from different places from the font file as the metric values, which results in different text layouts. When the descriptor value is a percentage, the corresponding metric value is resolved as the given percentage multiplied by the used font size. Negative values are invalid at parse time. The outer span uses an ascent value of 10px, whereas the inner span uses 15px.
The image will not be vertically shifted when the user agent finishes loading and switches to use the web font. The algorithm below describes how fonts are associated with individual runs of text. For each character in the run a font family is chosen and a particular font face is selected containing a glyph for that character.
Some font file formats allow font faces to carry multiple localizations of a particular string e. User agents must recognize and correctly match all of these names independent of the underlying platform localization, system API used, or document encoding.
This algorithm is detailed in section 3. Specifically, the algorithm must be applied without normalizing the strings involved and without applying any language-specific tailorings. The case folding method specified by this algorithm uses the case mappings with status field "C" or "F" in the CaseFolding. Note: For authors this means that font family names are matched case insensitively, whether those names exist in a platform font or in the font-face rules contained in a stylesheet.
Authors should take care to ensure that names use a character sequence consistent with the actual font family name, particularly when using combining characters such as diacritical marks. Note: Implementors should take care to verify that a given caseless string comparison implementation uses this precise algorithm and not assume that a given platform string matching routine follows it, as many of these have locale-specific behavior or use some level of string normalization.
The procedure for choosing a font for a given character in a run of text consists of iterating over the font families named by the font-family property, selecting a font face with the appropriate style based on other font properties and then determining whether a glyph exists for the given character. This is done using the character map of the font, data which maps characters to the default glyph for that character. Some legacy fonts might include a given character in the character map but lack the shaping information e.
OpenType layout tables or Graphite tables necessary for correctly rendering text runs containing that character. Codepoint sequences consisting of a base character followed by a sequence of combining characters are treated slightly differently, see the section on cluster matching below. For this procedure, the default face for a given font family is defined to be the face that would be selected if all font style properties were set to their initial value.
Using the computed font property values for a given element, the user agent starts with the first family name specified by the font-family property. If the family name is a generic family keyword, the user agent looks up the appropriate font family name to be used. User agents may choose the generic font family to use based on the language of the containing element or the Unicode range of the character.
If the font resources defined for a given face in an font-face rule are either not available or contain invalid font data, then the face should be treated as not present in the family. If no faces are present for a family defined via font-face rules, the family should be treated as missing; matching a platform font with the same name must not occur in this case.
If a font family match occurs, the user agent assembles the set of font faces in that family and then narrows the set to a single face using other font properties in the order given below. Fonts might be present in this group which can support a range of font-stretch , font-style , or font-weight properties.
In this case, the algorithm proceeds as if each supported combination of values are a unique font in the set. If such a font is ultimately selected by this algorithm, particular values for font-stretch , font-style , and font-weight must be applied before any layout or rendering occurs. A group of faces defined via font-face rules with identical font descriptor values but differing unicode-range values are considered to be a single composite face for this step:.
If a font does not have any concept of varying strengths of stretch values, its stretch value is mapped according table in the property definition. If the matching set includes faces with width values containing the font-stretch desired value, faces with width values which do not include the desired width value are removed from the matching set.
If there is no face which contains the desired value, a stretch value is chosen using the rules below:. Otherwise, stretch values above the desired stretch value are checked in ascending order followed by stretch values below the desired stretch value in descending order until a match is found.
Once the closest matching width has been determined by this process, faces with widths which do not include this determined width are removed from the matching set. Consider a font family with three fonts, named A, B, and C, each with associated supported ranges for the font-stretch descriptor. The font stretch ranges supported by fonts A, B, and C are shown in the graph above.
As you can see, because font B contains the minimum stretch value across the entire family, font B would be selected by this algorithm. However, if font B were somehow eliminated from the family, font C would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected.
However, if font B were somehow eliminated from the family, font A would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected. If a font does not have any concept of varying strengths of italics or oblique angles, its style is mapped according to the description in the font-style property definition.
If the value of font-style is italic :. If the matching set includes faces with italic values containing the mapped value of italic , faces, then faces with italic values which do not include the desired italic mapped value are removed from the matching set.
Otherwise, italic values above the desired italic value are checked in ascending order followed by italic values below the desired italic value, until 0 is hit. Only positive values of italic values are checked in this stage.
If no match is found, oblique values greater than or equal to 11deg are checked in ascending order followed by oblique values below 11deg in descending order, until 0 is hit. Only positive values of oblique values are checked in this stage. The threshold for preferring oblique over normal should be lower than the average angle. If no match is found, italic values less than or equal to 0 are checked in descending order until a match is found. If no match is found, oblique values less than or equal to 0deg are checked in descending order until a match is found.
As you can see, because font D contains the minimum italic value across the entire family, font D would be selected by this algorithm. However, if font D were somehow eliminated from the family, font E would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected. If E were eliminated, C would be selected.
If C were eliminated, font B would not be chosen immediately; instead, oblique values would be consulted and an oblique value might be chosen. However, if no oblique value is chosen, font B would then be selected, followed by font A. If the value of font-style is oblique and the requested angle is greater than or equal to 11deg,. If the matching set includes faces with oblique values containing the value of oblique , faces with oblique values which do not include the desired oblique value are removed from the matching set.
Otherwise, oblique values above the desired oblique value are checked in ascending order followed by oblique values below the desired oblique value, until 0 is hit. If font-synthesis-style has the value auto , then for variable fonts with a slnt axis a match is created by setting the slnt value with the specified oblique value; otherwise, a fallback match is produced by geometric shearing to the specified oblique value.
If no match is found, italic values greater than or equal to 1 are checked in ascending order followed by italic values below 1 in descending order, until 0 is hit. As you can see, because font D contains the minimum oblique value across the entire family, font D would be selected by this algorithm. If C were eliminated, font B would not be chosen immediately; instead, italic values would be consulted and an italic value might be chosen.
However, if no italic value is chosen, font B would then be selected, followed by font A. If the value of font-style is oblique and the requested angle is greater than or equal to 0deg and less than 11deg,. Otherwise, oblique values below the desired oblique value are checked in descending order until 0 is hit, followed by oblique values above the desired oblique value.
If no match is found, italic values less than 1 are checked in descending order until 0 is hit, followed by italic values above 1 in ascending order. However, if font D were somehow eliminated from the family, font C would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected. If C were eliminated, E would be selected. If E were eliminated, font B would not be chosen immediately; instead, italic values would be consulted and an italic value might be chosen.
If the value of font-style is oblique and the requested angle is less than 0deg and greater than deg, follow the steps above , except with the negated values and opposite directions. If the value of font-style is oblique and the requested angle is less than or equal to deg, follow the steps above , except with the negated values and opposite directions. If the value of font-style is normal ,. If no match is found, oblique values less than 0deg are checked in descending order until a match is found.
If no match is found, italic values less than 0 are checked in descending order until a match is found. As you can see, because font C contains the minimum oblique value across the entire family, font C would be selected by this algorithm. However, if font C were somehow eliminated from the family, font B would not be chosen immediately; instead, italic values would be consulted and an italic value might be chosen.
User agents are not required to distinguish between italic and oblique fonts. In such user agents, the font-style matching steps above are performed by mapping both italic values and oblique angles onto a common scale. The exact nature of this mapping is undefined, however, an italic value of 1 must map to the same value that an oblique angle of 11deg maps to. Within font families defined via font-face rules, italic and oblique faces must be distinguished using the value of the font-style descriptor.
For families that lack any italic or oblique faces, user agents may create artificial oblique faces, if this is permitted by the value of the font-synthesis property. If a font does not have any concept of varying strengths of weights, its weight is mapped according list in the property definition.
If the matching set after performing the steps above includes faces with weight values containing the font-weight desired value, faces with weight values which do not include the desired font-weight value are removed from the matching set. If there is no face which contains the desired value, a weight value is chosen using the rules below:. If the desired weight is inclusively between and , weights greater than or equal to the target weight are checked in ascending order until is hit and checked, followed by weights less than the target weight in descending order, followed by weights greater than , until a match is found.
If the desired weight is less than , weights less than or equal to the desired weight are checked in descending order followed by weights above the desired weight in ascending order until a match is found. If the desired weight is greater than , weights greater than or equal to the desired weight are checked in ascending order followed by weights below the desired weight in descending order until a match is found. As you can see, because font B contains the minimum distance across the entire family, font B would be selected by this algorithm.
If C were eliminated, D would be selected, followed by fonts A and then E. As you can see, because font C contains the minimum distance across the entire family, font C would be selected by this algorithm. However, if font C were somehow eliminated from the family, font D would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected. If D were also eliminated, B would be selected, followed by fonts A and then E. As you can see, because font D contains the minimum distance across the entire family, font D would be selected by this algorithm.
However, if font D were somehow eliminated from the family, font B would then contain the lowest distance in the family, so it would be selected. If A were eliminated, C would be selected. Once the closest matching weight has been determined by this process, faces with weights which do not include this determined weight are removed from the matching set.
Previously, interpolated values of font-weight were rounded to their closest multiple of , and the font-matching algorithm was run on these rounded values. In this specification, the font-matching algorithm is able to accept any value, so no rounding occurs. The small behavior change is due to the discontinuous nature of the font-matching algorithm. Further computations, e. Note that more than one font might be remaining in the matching set after performing the above steps.
If so, the user agent must choose a single font from the matching set and continue these steps with it. The choice of which font to choose can differ between multiple user agents and multiple operating system platforms; however, it must not differ between two elements in the same document.
If the matched face is defined via font-face rules, user agents must use the procedure below to select a single font:. If the font resource has not been loaded and the range of characters defined by the unicode-range descriptor value includes the character in question, load the font.
After downloading, if the effective character map supports the character in question, select that font. When the matched face is a composite face , user agents must use the procedure above on each of the faces in the composite face in reverse order of font-face rule definition. While the download occurs, user agents must either wait until the font is downloaded or render once with substituted font metrics and render again once the font is downloaded.
If no matching face exists or the matched face does not contain a glyph for the character to be rendered, the next family name is selected and the previous three steps repeated. Glyphs from other faces in the family are not considered.
The only exception is that user agents may optionally substitute a synthetically obliqued version of the default face if that face supports a given glyph and synthesis of these faces is permitted by the value of the font-synthesis property. If there are no more font families to be evaluated and no matching face has been found, then the user agent performs a installed font fallback procedure to find the best match for the character to be rendered.
The result of this procedure can vary across user agents. If a particular character cannot be displayed using any font, the user agent should indicate by some means that a character is not being displayed, displaying either a symbolic representation of the missing glyph e. Optimizations of this process are allowed provided that an implementation behaves as if the algorithm had been followed exactly.
Matching occurs in a well-defined order to ensure that the results are as consistent as possible across user agents, given an identical set of available fonts and rendering tech. Note: it does not matter whether that font actually has a glyph for the space character. When text contains characters such as combining marks, ideally the base character should be rendered using the same font as the mark, this assures proper placement of the mark.
For this reason, the font matching algorithm for clusters is more specialized than the general case of matching a single character by itself. For sequences containing variation selectors, which indicate the precise glyph to be used for a given character, user agents always attempt system font fallback to find the appropriate glyph before using the default glyph of the base character.
For a given cluster containing a base character, b and a sequence of combining characters c1, c2… , the entire cluster is matched using these steps:. CSS font matching is always performed on text runs containing Unicode characters [UNICODE] , so documents using legacy encodings are assumed to have been transcoded before matching fonts. For fonts containing character maps for both legacy encodings and Unicode, the contents of the legacy encoding character map must have no effect on the results of the font matching process.
Fonts may only support precomposed forms and not the decomposed sequence of base character plus combining marks. Authors should always tailor their choice of fonts to their content, including whether that content contains normalized or denormalized character streams. If a given character is a Private-Use Area Unicode codepoint, user agents must only match font families named in the font-family list that are not generic families.
If none of the families named in the font-family list contain a glyph for that codepoint, user agents must display some form of missing glyph symbol for that character rather than attempting system font fallback for that codepoint. In general, the fonts for a given family will all have the same or similar character maps. The process outlined here is designed to handle even font families containing faces with widely variant character maps. However, authors are cautioned that the use of such families can lead to unexpected results.
Modern font technologies support a variety of advanced typographic and language-specific font features. Using these features, a single font can provide glyphs for a wide range of ligatures, contextual and stylistic alternates, tabular and old-style figures, small capitals, automatic fractions, swashes, and alternates specific to a given language. To allow authors control over these font capabilities, the font-variant property has been expanded.
It now functions as a shorthand for a set of properties that provide control over stylistic font features. Simple fonts used for displaying Latin text use a very basic processing model. Fonts contain a character map which maps each character to a glyph for that character.
Glyphs for subsequent characters are simply placed one after the other along a run of text. The glyph for a given character can be chosen and positioned not just based on the codepoint of the character itself, but also on adjacent characters as well as the language, script, and features enabled for the text. Font features may be required for specific scripts, or recommended as enabled by default or they might be stylistic features meant to be used under author control.
The subproperties of font-variant listed below are used to control these stylistic font features. They do not control features that are required for displaying certain scripts, such as the OpenType features used when displaying Arabic or Indic language text.
They affect glyph selection and positioning, but do not affect font selection as described in the font matching section except in cases required for compatibility with CSS 2. To assure consistent behavior across user agents, the equivalent OpenType property settings are listed for individual properties and are normative. When using other font formats these should be used as a guideline to map CSS font feature property values to specific font features.
OpenType also supports language-specific glyph selection and positioning, so that text can be displayed correctly in cases where the language dictates a specific display behavior. Many languages share a common script, but the shape of certain letters can vary across those languages. For example, certain Cyrillic letters have different shapes in Russian text than in Bulgarian. The example below shows language-specific variations based on stylistic traditions found in Spanish, Italian and French orthography:.
If the content language of the element is known according to the rules of the document language , user agents are required to infer the OpenType language system from the content language and use that when selecting and positioning glyphs using an OpenType font. If a writing system has been explicitly specified, it must take precedence over the customary one implied by the content language. For OpenType fonts, in some cases it may be necessary to explicitly declare the OpenType language to be used, for example when displaying text in a given language that uses the typographic conventions of another language or when the font does not explicitly support a given language but supports a language that shares common typographic conventions.
The font-language-override property is used for this purpose. Kerning is the contextual adjustment of inter-glyph spacing. This property controls metric kerning, kerning that utilizes adjustment data contained in the font. For fonts that do not include kerning data this property will have no visible effect.
When kerning is enabled, the relevant OpenType kerning features are enabled for horizontal typographic modes and for sideways typesetting in vertical typographic modes , the kern feature; for upright typesetting in vertical typographic modes , the vkrn feature. User agents must also support fonts that only support kerning via data contained in a kern font table, as detailed in the OpenType specification.
If the letter-spacing property is defined, kerning adjustments are considered part of the default spacing and letter spacing adjustments are made after kerning has been applied. When set to auto , user agents can determine whether to apply kerning or not based on a number of factors: text size, script, or other factors that influence text processing speed. Authors who want proper kerning should use normal to explicitly enable kerning.
Likewise, some authors may prefer to disable kerning in situations where performance is more important than precise appearance. However, in well-designed modern implementations the use of kerning generally does not have a large impact on text rendering speed. Required ligatures, needed for correctly rendering complex scripts, are not affected by the settings above, including none OpenType feature: rlig.
This property is used to enable typographic subscript and superscript glyphs. These are alternate glyphs designed within the same em-box as default glyphs and are intended to be laid out on the same baseline as the default glyphs, with no resizing or repositioning of the baseline. They are explicitly designed to match the surrounding text and to be more readable without affecting the line height.
Because of the semantic nature of subscripts and superscripts, when the value is either sub or super for a given contiguous run of text, if a variant glyph is not available for all the characters in the run, simulated glyphs should be synthesized for all characters using reduced forms of the glyphs that would be used without this feature applied. This is done per run to avoid a mixture of variant glyphs and synthesized ones that would not align correctly.
In the case of OpenType fonts that lack subscript or superscript glyphs for a given character, user agents must synthesize appropriate subscript and superscript glyphs. Superscript alternate glyph left , synthesized superscript glyphs middle , and incorrect mixture of the two right.
In situations where text decorations are only applied to runs of text containing superscript or subscript glyphs, the synthesized glyphs may be used, to avoid problems with the placement of decorations. In the past, user agents have used font-size and vertical-align to simulate subscripts and superscripts for the sub and sup elements. Because font-size: smaller is often used for these elements, the effective scaling factor applied to subscript and superscript text varies depending upon the size.
For larger text, the font size is often reduced by a third but for smaller text sizes, the reduction can be much less. This allows subscripts and superscripts to remain readable even within elements using small text sizes. User agents should consider this when deciding how to synthesize subscript and superscript glyphs. Authors should note that fonts typically only provide subscript and superscript glyphs for a subset of all characters supported by the font.
For example, while subscript and superscript glyphs are often available for Latin numbers, glyphs for punctuation and letter characters are less frequently provided. The synthetic fallback rules defined for this property try to ensure that subscripts and superscripts will always appear but the appearance may not match author expectations if the font used does not provide the appropriate alternate glyph for all characters contained in a subscript or superscript.
This property is not cumulative. Images contained within text runs where the value of this property is sub or super will be drawn just as they would if the value was normal. Because of these limitations, font-variant-position is not recommended for use in user agent stylesheets.
Authors should use it in cases where subscripts or superscripts will only contain the narrow range of characters supported by the fonts specified. The variant glyphs use the same baseline as the default glyphs would use. Using font-variant-position to specify typographic subscripts in a way that will still show subscripts in older user agents:. User agents that support the font-variant-position property will select a subscript variant glyph and render this without adjusting the baseline or font-size.
Older user agents will ignore the font-variant-position property definition and use the standard defaults for subscripts. This property allows the selection of alternate glyphs used for small or petite capitals or for titling. These glyphs are specifically designed to blend well with the surrounding normal glyphs, to maintain the weight and readability which suffers when text is simply resized to fit this purpose.
The availability of these glyphs is based on whether a given feature is defined or not in the feature list of the font. User agents can optionally decide this on a per-script basis but should explicitly not decide this on a per-character basis.
Some fonts may only support a subset or none of the features described for this property. For backwards compatibility with CSS 2. The font-feature-settings property also affects the decision of whether or not to use a simulated small-caps font unlike CSS Fonts 3. However, for fonts which do support small caps, example1 should be rendered with native small caps, while example2 should be rendered without any small-caps native or synthesized. To match the surrounding text, a font may provide alternate glyphs for caseless characters when these features are enabled but when a user agent simulates small capitals, it must not attempt to simulate alternates for codepoints which are considered caseless.
If titling-caps is specified with a font that does not support this feature, this property has no visible effect. When simulated small capital glyphs are used, for scripts that lack uppercase and lowercase letters, small-caps , all-small-caps , petite-caps , all-petite-caps and unicase have no visible effect. When casing transforms are used to simulate small capitals, the casing transformations must match those used for the text-transform property.
As a last resort, unscaled uppercase letter glyphs in a normal font may replace glyphs in a small-caps font so that the text appears in all uppercase letters. Specifies control over numerical forms. The example below shows how some of these values can be combined to influence the rendering of tabular data with fonts that support these features.
Within normal paragraph text, proportional numbers are used while tabular numbers are used so that columns of numbers line up properly:. In the case of ordinal , although ordinal forms are often the same as superscript forms, they are marked up differently. For superscripts, the variant property is only applied to the sub-element containing the superscript:. For ordinals, the variant property is applied to the entire ordinal number rather than just to the suffix or to the containing paragraph :.
In this case only the "th" will appear in ordinal form, the digits will remain unchanged. Depending upon the typographic traditions used in a given language, ordinal forms may differ from superscript forms. In Italian, for example, ordinal forms sometimes include an underline in the ordinal design. Note that the fraction feature is only applied to values not the entire paragraph.
For any given character, fonts can provide a variety of alternate glyphs in addition to the default glyph for that character. This property provides control over the selection of these alternate glyphs. For many of the property values listed below, several different alternate glyphs are available. How many alternates are available and what they represent is font-specific, so these are each marked font specific in the value definitions below. This allows values to be defined and used for a given set of font families but ignored if fallback occurs, since the font family name would be different.
If a given value is outside the range supported by a given font, the value is ignored. These values never apply to generic font families. Several of the possible values of font-variant-alternates listed above are labeled as font specific ; a font can define not just a single glyph for the feature, but multiple possible glyph variants, and associate each one with a numeric index to let you choose which to turn on.
Thus, specifying the index in font-feature-settings requires that the author know exactly which font will be used on an element; if they get it wrong due to font fallback selecting a different font they might end up turning on an entirely different, and undesirable, feature to what they wanted! To fix this issue, the font-feature-values rule lets an author assign, for each font face, a human-friendly name to specific feature indexes.
Using a commonly named value allows authors to use a single style rule to cover a set of fonts for which the underlying selector is different for each font. If either font in the example below is found, a circled number glyph will be used:. This means that only named font families are allowed; rules that include generic or system fonts in the list of font families are syntax errors. However, if a user agent defines a generic font to be a specific named font e. Helvetica , the settings associated with that family name will be used.
If the same tuple appears more than once in a document such as if a single block , the last-defined one is used. A syntax error within a font feature value declaration makes the declaration invalid and ignored, but does not invalidate the font feature value block it occurs in. An unknown at-rule within a font-feature-values block not using one of the predefined list of allowed at-keywords makes that at-rule invalid and ignored, but does not invalidate the font-feature-values rule.
If multiple font-feature-values rules are defined for a given family, the resulting values definitions are the union of the definitions contained within these rules. This allows a set of named values to be defined for a given font family globally for a site and specific additions made per-page. Most font specific functional values of the font-variant-alternates property take a single value e. The character-variant property value allows two values and styleset allows an unlimited number.
For the styleset property value, multiple values indicate the style sets to be enabled. Values between 1 and 99 enable OpenType features ss01 through ss However, the OpenType standard only officially defines ss01 through ss For OpenType fonts, values greater than 99 or equal to 0 do not generate a syntax error when parsed but enable no OpenType features.
For character-variant, a single value between 1 and 99 indicates the enabling of OpenType feature cv01 through cv For OpenType fonts, values greater than 99 or equal to 0 are ignored but do not generate a syntax error when parsed but enable no OpenType features. When two values are listed, the first value indicates the feature used and the second the value passed for that feature.
If more than two values are assigned to a given name, a syntax error occurs and the entire feature value definition is ignored. In the figure above, the text in red is rendered using a font containing character variants that mimic the character forms found on a Byzantine seal from the 8th century A. Two lines below is the same text displayed in a font without variants. Note the two variants for U and N used on the seal. The various JIS variants reflect the glyph forms defined in different Japanese national standards.
The simplified and traditional values allow control over the glyph forms for characters which have been simplified over time but for which the older, traditional form is still used in some contexts. The exact set of characters and glyph forms will vary to some degree by the context for which a given font was designed. The red ruby text below is shown with default glyphs top and with ruby variant glyphs bottom. Note the slight difference in stroke thickness. The font-variant property is a shorthand for all font-variant subproperties.
The value normal resets all subproperties of font-variant to their initial value. The none value sets font-variant-ligatures to none and resets all other font feature properties to their initial value. Like other shorthands, using font-variant resets unspecified font-variant subproperties to their initial values. It does not reset the values of font-language-override , font-feature-settings or font-variation-settings.
This property provides low-level control over OpenType font features. It is intended as a way of providing access to font features that are not widely used but are needed for a particular use case. Authors should generally use font-variant and its related subproperties whenever possible and only use this property for special cases where its use is the only way of accessing a particular infrequently used font feature.
For example, there is no font-variant value to control Scientific Inferiors small numerals used in chemical formulae. Readability is enhanced by using them, so they must be enabled using font-feature-settings:. The entire property value is set at once. Unlike the font-variant properties, there is no way to modify the inherited value by adding or removing individual features.
A value of normal means that no change in glyph selection or positioning occurs due to this property. Feature tags need only match a feature tag defined in the font, so they are not limited to explicitly registered OpenType features. Feature tags not present in the font are ignored; a user agent must not attempt to synthesize fallback behavior based on these feature tags. The one exception is that user agents may synthetically support the kern feature with fonts that contain kerning data in the form of a kern table but lack kern feature support in the GPOS table.
In general, authors should use the font-kerning property to explicitly enable or disable kerning since this property always affects fonts with either type of kerning data. If present, a value indicates an index used for glyph selection.
A value of 0 indicates that the feature is disabled. For boolean features, a value of 1 enables the feature. For non-boolean features, a value of 1 or greater enables the feature and indicates the feature selection index. A value of on is synonymous with 1 and off is synonymous with 0. If the value is omitted, a value of 1 is assumed. The computed value of font-feature-settings is a map, so any duplicates in the specified value must not be preserved.
If the same axis name appears more than once, the value associated with the last appearance supersedes any previous value for that axis. When values greater than the range supported by the font are specified, the behavior is explicitly undefined. For boolean features, in general these will enable the feature.
For non-boolean features, out of range values will in general be equivalent to a 0 value. However, in both cases the exact behavior will depend upon the way the font is designed specifically, which type of lookup is used to define the feature. Although specifically defined for OpenType feature tags, feature tags for other modern font formats that support font features may be added in the future. Where possible, features defined for other font formats should attempt to follow the pattern of registered OpenType tags.
Normally, authors can control the use of language-specific glyph substitutions and positioning by setting the content language of an element, as described above :. The font-language-override property allows authors to explicitly specify the language system of the font, overriding the language system implied by the content language. Unknown OpenType language system tags are silently ignored, and do not affect glyph selection and placement.
Here the user agent uses the value of the lang attribute when rendering text and appropriately renders this text without fi ligatures. There is no need to use the font-language-override property. However, a given font may lack support for a specific language. In this situation authors may need to use the typographic conventions of a related language that are supported by that font:. As the content creator knows that font specified supports Serbian, the Macedonian text here will be rendered using Serbian typographic conventions.
As described in the previous section, font features and variations can be enabled in a variety of ways, either via the use of font-variant , font-feature-settings , font font-variation-settings in a style rule or within an font-face rule. The resolution order for the union of these settings is defined below. Features defined via CSS properties are applied on top of layout engine default features. For OpenType fonts, user agents must enable the default features defined in the OpenType documentation for a given script and writing mode.
Required ligatures, common ligatures and contextual forms must be enabled by default OpenType features: rlig, liga, clig, calt , along with localized forms OpenType feature: locl , and features required for proper display of composed characters and marks OpenType features: ccmp, mark, mkmk.
These features must always be enabled, even when the value of the font-variant and font-feature-settings properties is normal. Individual features are only disabled when explicitly overridden by the author, as when font-variant-ligatures is set to no-common-ligatures.
For handling complex scripts such as Arabic , Mongolian or Devanagari additional features are required. For upright text within vertical text runs, vertical alternates OpenType feature: vert must be enabled. General and font specific font feature property settings are resolved in the order below, in ascending order of precedence. This ordering is used to construct a combined list of font features that affect a given text run.
Font features enabled by default are applied, including features required for a given script. Font variations as enabled by the font-weight , font-stretch , and font-style properties are applied. The application of the value enabled by font-style is affected by font selection, because this property might select an italic or an oblique font.
The value applied is the closest matching value as determined by the font matching algorithm. User agents must apply at most one value due to the font-style property; both "ital" and "slnt" values must not be set together. If the selected font is defined in an font-face rule, then the values applied at this step should be clamped to the value of the font-weight , font-stretch , and font-style descriptors in that font-face rule.
Then, the values applied in this step should be clamped possibly again to the values that are supported by the font. If the font is defined via an font-face rule, the font language override implied by the font-language-override descriptor in the font-face rule are applied. These values are clamped to the values that are supported by the font. If the font is defined via an font-face rule, the font variations implied by the font-variation-settings descriptor in the font-face rule are applied.
If the font is defined via an font-face rule, the font features implied by the font-feature-settings descriptor in the font-face rule are applied. The font language override implied by the value of the font-language-override property is applied. Font variations implied by the value of the font-optical-sizing property are applied.
Font features implied by the value of the font-variant property, the related font-variant subproperties and any other CSS property that uses OpenType features e. Feature settings determined by properties other than font-variant or font-feature-settings are applied. For example, setting a non-default value for the letter-spacing property disables optional ligatures. Font variations implied by the value of the font-variation-settings property are applied. These values should be clamped to the values that are supported by the font.
Font features implied by the value of font-feature-settings property are applied. This ordering allows authors to set up a general set of defaults for fonts within their font-face rules, then override them with property settings for specific elements. The work of Brittney Murphy Design, this font is free for personal use only. One of the most delicate and restrained free script fonts we've seen, Shink is nonetheless highly legible. It also includes plenty of alternates, which you can use to customise your designs.
Brittney Murphy has created several of the best free cursive fonts around, and we simply love this laid back offering. Hickory Jack is free for personal use, but you'll need to contact Murphy to obtain a commercial licence. There aren't many free script fonts that give off a really authentic feel, but Crunchy is one of them. Created by typographer Mans Greback, it has a distinctly old-school feel to it, and would be perfect for any retro or vintage style design.
It's free for personal use only. Alex Brush features short ascenders and descenders, and is nice and legible. It's free for both personal and commercial use. Designed by Fernando Haro, La Sonnambula is a handwritten and extended font that's been designed with calligraphic texts and elegant titles in mind. However despite its classic roots, it's bang up to date, even including a Bitcoin symbol.
Free for personal use only. Gregory Medina — aka dcoxy — does a great line in free script fonts, and one of our favourites, Lily of the Valley, has been fully updated for Fun and quirky with some charming flourishes, it features a full set of lower- and upper-case characters, plus accents and symbols.
One of the most original free script fonts we've found, Flanella provides a delightfully delicate, looping script that's full of character and flair. This expressive font is free for both commercial and personal projects. One of the best free cursive fonts we've seen in a long while, The Woodlands offers a strikingly modern and original take on the calligraphic aesthetic.
The work of Jeremy Vessey, this cursive font is free for both personal and commercial use, although you'll need to provide your email address. Somewhat at the quirkier end of free script fonts, Noelan includes a number of alternates and international characters, for easy mixing and matching. Created by the team at ndro, this clean and modern design is free for personal use. Mats-Peter Forss has designed several of the best free script fronts.
Beautiful Bloom is a great option for both print and digital projects, including stationery, posters, and logo designs. It's available at no charge for personal use only. One of the more substantial free script fonts we've seen, Milkshake is round, thick and sturdy. Created by typographer Laura Worthington, it's free to download from Bold Faced Goods, although note that you'll have to give them both your physical and email address first.
This simplistic font will give your project an authentic feel with its rustic feel and uneven edges. This hand-written style script font is adorable, and it's available for both personal and commercial use, but again, make sure you double-check before any commercial use. Fabien Despinoy is the creative behind Fabfelt, one of the most industrial-feeling free script fonts on our list. He set out to design a handwritten typeface without graininess, and the result is a natural-looking font with a splash of retro charm.
Released by Artimasa, this lovely hand-drawn brush font will add a natural touch to your designs. With its irregular, bouncing characters, Debby is ideal for wedding invitations, posters, logos and greeting cards. Hitting that sweet spot between sophisticated and open, Black Jack was created by Ronna Penner of Typadelic.
Although this cursive font is only available in one style, Black Jack comprises characters, including a full set of upper and lower case letters and numbers. It's free for use in personal and commercial projects.
One of the quirkiest free script fonts around, Anke Calligraphic FG Regular was originally designed by Anke Arnold, but has been extended to include international characters by Fontgrube Media Design. A clean, professional, and modern script font, Tahul includes a full upper- and lower-case set, plus numerals, punctuation and a range of special characters, making it nice and versatile.
It's free for both personal and commercial projects, as long as you credit its creators. This wonderfully fancy handwritten font has an old-fashioned look and feel to it, making it perfect for all retro- and vintage-inspired projects. It also makes use of OpenType features to make it appear all the more natural.
Designed by Lee Batchelor, it's free for both personal and commercial use. This isn't the most technically finessed of our free script fonts, but we love the ease of the letterforms and the honesty of the designer's notes. Crafted by El Stinger, it allows you to present an appearance of effortless scrawl. Christopher Hand is free for personal use only.
Grand Hotel has a classic weight and subtlety that makes you think of artisan signage and craft, but its cursive lowercase lends itself to a host of different uses. Designed by Brian J Bonislawsky and Jim Lyles for Astigmatic, this most refined of free script fonts is free for both personal and commercial use.
Join now for unlimited access. He also reports on the worlds of design, branding and tech. Daniel joined Future in an eventful year, to say the least after working in copywriting and digital marketing with brands including ITV, NBC, Channel 4 and more. Outside of Future, Daniel is a global poetry slam champion and has performed at festivals including Latitude, Bestival and more. Sign in. View Deal opens in new tab.
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