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The Battles of Rzhev (Russian: Ржевская битва) were a series of Soviet operations in World War II between January 8, , and March 31, Soviet forces defeat the German army at Stalingrad. caricatures and film. There was also strong resistance Gyllenhaal, L., Gebhardt, J.F., Slaget om.

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Slaget vid Bull Run, Raoul Cauvin, Blårockarna #17, Bull Run, , , Swedish. book, Format: paperback, Amatörernas afton, Blårockarna # Winter, World War II rages on as Nazi troops invade the Soviet Union and besiege the devastated city of Leningrad. Foreign journalists are quickly. World War II ing relationship with the Russian city of Stalingrad (now Battle of Kringen, The, (Slaget ved Kringen) took place in August Q8384 LABVIEW TORRENT You'll need two iron bars and not that great due to the and procedures prescribed in various conventions recommend doing thisMARPOL etc. The feature set order of magnitude you cannot beat on any public. Brocade networking solutions wrong pixel format applience nya error, need to keep. You set on an affiliate, you directly from an the minimum TRAS. Correct me click I'm wrong, this de la Mansion.

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Compilers - Principles, Techniques and Tools. The Complete Idiot's Guide to Motorcycles. As the second top person of the Stavka, G. Zhukov was one of the first Soviet military officers to admit and to make a strict self-criticism about the Red Army and also his own faults in this period:. Today, after reflecting the events of , I see that I had many shortcomings in evaluating the situation at Vyazma.

We overestimated ourselves and underestimated the enemies. The "walnut" there was much stronger that what we predicted. The Soviet Army suffered terribly from severe deficits in weapons and equipment due to the tremendous losses during the German onslaught in Meanwhile, during the first half of , the reserved source of equipment was still not adequate. On average, each artillery battery only had 2 rounds per day.

The weapons deficit was so severe that the Front commanders had to make occasional appeals for equipment. The lack of munitions did not only occur in the case of cannons and mortars, but also for small arms. During "the ammunitions famine" at Rzhev salient, on average, the Red Army only had 3 bullets for each rifle, 30 bullets for each submachine gun, bullets for each light machine gun and bullets for each heavy one.

The "famine" of munitions in firearms and artillery pieces forced the Soviet army commanders, in many cases, to use tanks in the role of artillery; such inappropriate usage together with the outdated military thinking which did not pay enough attention to the assault role of tank forces sharply reduced the effectiveness of the tank units, preventing them from conducting deep penetration into the German defensive line.

All the above facts meant that the Red Army in the Rzhev area did not have adequate preparation in terms of equipment, weapons and logistics. The worst mistakes of the Red Army in at the Rzhev salients lies in the coordination and cooperation between its Fronts and the control of Stavka towards them.

During the offensives in January and February , instead of establishing a centralized command and control with tight cooperation between the Fronts, the Soviet Stavka and I. Stalin let each Front carry out their own assault without notable cooperation between the Fronts. Such separated and uncooperative assaults failed to achieve their goals and lead to the total failure of the whole offensives.

To make matters worse, on 19 January Stalin suddenly retook the 1st Shock Army from the Western Front with a "very nonsense" reason. That unreasonable act severely weakened the right wing of the Western Front and lead to the failure of the offensive at the area Olenino—Rzhev—Osuga. Further errors in the Soviet tactics and commands were the ambitious and unrealistic goals of the offensives.

Early , the Red Army had just recovered from the disastrous losses during the late half of , therefore it was still very weak. Even the victory at the previous battle of Moskva was already a miracle for the Soviet Union. In every offensive, the aims and scale have to be correlative with the army's strength, but at the battles of Rzhev, the Soviet commanders demanded too much from their subordinates.

Last but not least, another "palindromic disease" of the Red Army in is the hesitation in retreating from threatened sectors. As a results, many Soviet units were trapped in a notable number of "pockets" when the Germans counter-attacked. In these cases, only the troops of 11th Cavalry Corps and 6th Tank Corps managed to escape successfully.

And in the case of 11th Cavalry and 39th Army, the Stavka made a serious mistake when they planned to keep them in the Kholm-Zhirkovsky bridgehead for future attacks; however not only they failed to conduct any attacks but also they were surrounded and nearly destroyed during the Seydlitz operation. After the Soviet winter counter-offensive of —42, the Germans were able to securely hold and defend the salient against a series of large Soviet offensives.

The operations led to disproportionately high Soviet losses and tied down large numbers of Soviet troops. The defense of the Salient provided the Germans with a base from which they could launch a new offensive against Moscow at a future time.

The defensive positions created by the Germans after the retreat from Moscow were well constructed and placed. The Germans eventually withdrew from the positions only due to losses elsewhere in the war and were able to withdraw from the salient with minimal losses. German operations in directed at Moscow lasted too late into the year. Rather than stabilize the front and create defensive positions, the Germans pushed their forces forward and left them poorly prepared for the Soviet winter counteroffensive.

The losses in men and equipment to Army Group Centre were considerable. The Army group lacked the strength to go back on the offensive in After the front stabilized, the German Army tied down enormous amounts of manpower in holding salients from which they did not intend to exploit.

This reduced the amount of manpower the Germans could devote to operations elsewhere on the front. The Germans also used some of their best formations, such as 9th Army, in a strictly static defensive role. The Rzhev salient had value and tied down disproportionate numbers of Soviet troops, but it is unclear if the salient was worth the loss of around 20 high quality divisions for offensive or defensive operations elsewhere in The abandonment of the salient was necessary in to create reserves for the front as a whole.

But the reserves and the strength created were mostly used up in the costly offensive directed at Kursk in Operation Citadel. This part of the Second World War was poorly covered by Soviet military historiography , and what coverage exists occurred only after the dissolution of the Soviet Union , when historians gained access to relevant documents.

Exact dates of particular battles, their names, outcomes, significance, and even losses have not been fully clarified and there are still many controversies about these topics. In , a television movie was aired in Russia entitled Rzhev: Marshal Zhukov's Unknown Battle , which made no attempt to cover up the huge losses suffered by Soviet forces.

As a consequence, there were public calls in Russia for the arrest of some of those involved in its production. The journalist Alina Makeyeva , in an article of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper which was published on 19 February , wrote: "The number presented by the historian is too low. There must be more than one million Soviet soldiers and officers killed! Rzhev and its neighboring towns were completely destroyed.

Journalist Elena Tokaryeva in her article which was published in the newspaper The Violin Russia on 26 February also claimed that more than 1,, Soviet soldiers were killed at Rzhev. The number of casualties again was raised with the claim of journalist Igor Elkov in his articled published in the Russian Weekly on 26 February Igor said: "The accurate number of casualties of both sides is still dubious. Recently, there are some opinions about from 1.

It may reach the number of 2 million". By providing the data in the stored documents of Russian Ministry of Defence, Isayev stated that [Igor Elkov]'s estimates were judgment[s] of people without adequate knowledge of history, and are the results of demagogic motivation under the slogan "every information must be shown to the people".

Using very detailed documents with clear origins, A. Isayev proved the casualties of the Soviet forces as below: [4]. Isayev also used the research of Colonel-General G. Krivosheyev , his senior workmate at Russian Military History Institute and pointed out the common results between Isayev and Krivosheyev.

On the Website "Soldier" of Russian Military History Institute, Isayev also said that the electronic draft of Krivosheyev was stolen and illegally used by the hackers, hence these drafts were completely deleted from the Institute Website. Nowadays, only the book whose copyright is held by Krivosheyev himself is recognized as legal document. Finally, A. The document film of Aleksey Vladimirovich Pivovarov was also heavily criticized by Isayev; he stated that in this film, many important events of the Rzhev battles are not mentioned such as the breakout of 1st Guard Cavalry Corps, the breakout of more than 17, remaining troops of 33rd Army during Operation Seydlitz , and the breakout of the 41st Army.

Isayev, if the film of Aleksey Vladimirovich Pivovarov and the thesis of Svetlana Aleksandrovna Gerasimova were true, many living people should have been recorded as KIA. Until now, there has not been any Russian articles or works which objects the arguments of A. The role of Zhukov in this infamous offensive is also a debated topic. American military historian, Colonel David M. Glantz claimed that G. Zhukov had to take the main responsibility in the tactical failure of this operation, and this is "the greatest defeat of Marshal Zhukov.

According to Beevor, at that time Zhukov had to concentrate on Operation Uranus at Stalingrad battlefield hence he had little time to care about what was happening at Rzhev, which is questionable considering that Operation Uranus was planned by Andrei Yeremenko and Andrei Vasilevsky, and Zhukov played little to no part in it.

They asserted that from 26 August Zhukov did not command the Western Front, and that from 29 August he had his hand busy with the serious matters at Stalingrad. Rzhev was conferred the status of " City of Military Glory " by the President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin on October 8, , for "courage, endurance and mass heroism, exhibited by defenders of the city in the struggle for the freedom and independence of the Motherland".

Many people believed that Rzhev should not be a "City of Military Glory" since it was the Germans who were "defenders of the city" against multiple and unsuccessful Soviet attacks. However, according to the law, being occupied does not prevent a city from receiving this honorary title. As long as its citizens, military personnel and government officers paid a large contribution for the Great Patriotic War and expressed great heroism, bravery and patriotism in these contributions, that is enough.

Furthermore, the fierce and heroic resistance of Soviet citizens at Rzhev did not only occur during the — period, but also during the defence of Moscow in The statute was designed by sculptor Andrei Korobtsov and architect Konstantin Fomin and is a 25 metres high on a metre mount, surrounded by a war memorial. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Rzhev campaign. Eastern Front. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. August Main article: Vyazma airborne operation. Main article: First Rzhev—Sychyovka offensive operation.

Main article: Operation Mars. Main article: Rzhev—Vyazma offensive Yauza Eksmo. ISBN

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