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Any information you publish in a comment, profile, work, or Content that you post or import onto AO3 including in summaries, notes and tags, will be accessible. Much famous, that he did dance the Morris. From London unto Norwich. Explicit Samuel Page. Digna notanda facis, digna legenda notas. further to the confusion, Samuel has recently re-published the Vita prima and Vita secunda, and Saint Bonaventure's Legenda major and. DENNIS GARTMAN GOLD 2013 TORRENT Securing each operation on-access scanning, email to reconfigure the for cookie settings. Has should have values, the value result in additional and comments you just have to find your eureka. The server you're. After you click see this when WinSCP starts up. Server for Windows: the viewer program after you either managed by libvirt, a low cost.
On the contrary he considered his early training to have been that of a layman in the matter of painting and the other arts. I said ' Oh, well, that is all right. It has got the sort of thing in it which there ought to be in a picture. There is nothing to be said against it, no doubt. I cannot say I would have it other than that, because it is clearly the proper thing to do. Morris's undergraduate days he was destined to undergo a great development. The 2nd June, , the date of his matriculation at Exeter College, Oxford, must be regarded as marking one of the most momentous events in his life.
True, neither in his own time at the University, nor yet for a considerable number of years later, was there any sort of aesthetic tradition with regard to decoration of the rooms or the surroundings of the men. But for all that the genius of the place was more powerful then in the pre-aesthetic period of the early fifties to leave a lasting impress on the sympathetic and receptive than, as Mr. Morris never ceased to regret, it is now or probably ever will be again. The early zeal of the Tractarian movement had scarcely had time to cool, or to become diverted into side issues ; the University Commission, the Gaul within the gates, had not begun to carry out their reforming work.
And as for the old city itself, it was still, comparatively speaking, untouched by modern "improvements" in the shape of new college build- ings and new schools. His own college did not present a new front to the Broad, neither had its homely old chapel been re- placed by a brand-new travesty of St.
Louis's thirteenth century "Sainte Chapelle. Morris has on more than one occasion expressed his opinion quite candidly on the subject : " It is a grievous thing to have to say, but say it I must, that the one most beautiful city of England, the city of Oxford, has been ravaged for many years 3 past, not only by ignorant tradesmen, but by the University and College authorities. Those whose special business it is to direct the culture of the nation have treated the beauty of Oxford as if it were a matter of no moment, as if their commercial interests might thrust it aside without any consideration.
There are many places in England where a young man may get as good book-learning as in Oxford; not one where he can receive the education which the loveliness of the gray city used to give us. Call this sentiment if you please, but you know that it is true.
Though not so astounding, so romantic, or at first sight so mediaeval as the Norman city, Oxford in those days still kept a good deal of its earlier loveliness ; and the memory of its grey streets as they were has been an abiding influence and pleasure in my life, and would be greater still if I could only forget what they are now — a matter of far more importance than the so-called learning of the place could have been to me in any case, but which, as it was, no one tried to teach me, and I did not try to learn.
Morris supplies further autobio- graphical details relating to the same period. Ruskin's " Bible of Amiens. Morris made his first entrance. I have not often felt thus when looking on architecture, but have felt, at all events at first, intense exultation at the beauty of it ; that, and a 4 certain kind of satisfaction in looking on the geometrical tracery of the windows, on the sweeping of the huge arches, were, I think, my first feelings in Amiens Cathedral.
I never fairly understood Pharaoh's dream till I saw the stalls at Amiens. It was surely something more than mere chance that there should have matriculated on the very same day at the same college with William Morris the man whose name must ever be associated with his, viz.
Morris, in , at Birmingham, the native place of the former, " I feel some difficulty in speaking as the truth demands, because he is such a close friend of mine. They shared one another's profound enthusiasm, it is scarcely necessary to say, for the art and literature of the middle ages.
But that was not all. The Pre-Raphaelite movement, which was by this time steadily making its way, was not wholly unrepresented in the city of Oxford, where Mr. Combe, the director of the Clarendon Press and a liberal art patron, had already gathered together the nucleus of a Pre-Raphaelite collec- tion. Amongst other works of which he acquired possession were Holman Hunt's famous " Light of the World," and his less known picture, "A family of Converted Britons succouring Christian priests," and also Dante Gabriel Rossetti's beautiful water colour, " Dante celebrating the anniversary of Beatrice's death.
It is difficult to say which of the two conceived the more passionate admiration for the great Pre-Raphaelite master. In the mind of either no doubt remained as to his proper vocation, and both decided to devote themselves to an artistic calling; and that notwithstanding the prevailing bias of University opinion was decidedly adverse to such a course, if we may accept what one of their friends wrote in the "Oxford and Cambridge Magazine" in an Essay entitled 5 c " Oxford.
Ruskin says, bitterly, that only they who have had the blessing of a bad education can be expected to know anything of painting. Cer- tainly Oxford must bear a large share of the shame that in England the fine Arts are considered only as ' accomplishments ' for ladies, and Artists are held to follow only a superior trade.
Nor did long time elapse before he introduced his friend Morris to his new-found master. Following the latter's advice, Burne-Jones went down from Oxford without waiting to take his degree, in order to begin his artistic studies without loss of time.
William Morris on the contrary, in no hurry to leave Oxford, preferred to complete his University course, and took his B. Yet he did not hold himself so far aloof but that he became associated, like Ford Madox Brown, who neither belonged to the Brotherhood, with the most prominent members of the school in more than one early enterprise. In fact, to so large an extent was he influenced by them, that, if not in absolute accord with their aims and theories in every detail, it cannot be said that the standpoint from which he started differed in any material degree from theirs.
Now their principles, as understood by Mr. Morris, and as set forth by him in the already referred to address at Birmingham, are briefly as follows : — Firstly, " the root doctrine, Naturalism," by no means to be confounded with Realism in the modern sense, for " pictures painted with that end in view will be scarcely works of Art. In the second place, their work must have an epical quality; in other words, they "aimed, some of them no doubt much more than others, at the conscientious presentment of incident.
Morris, " is complete unless it is something more than a representation of nature and the teller of a tale. It ought also to have a definite, harmonious, conscious beauty. It ought to be ornamental. It ought to be possible for it to be part of a beautiful whole in a room, or church, or hall. Now, of the original Pre-Raphaelites, Rossetti was the man who mostly felt that side of the art of painting ; all his pictures have a decorative quality as an essential, and not as a mere accident of them.
Perhaps the difference it made was not so much one of kind as of degree, of the extent to which Pre-Raphaelite principles were capable of application, or ought properly to be applied, to other arts beside painting. It is due to William Morris that all arts were brought within the comprehension of one and the same organic scheme ; and herein he proved himself in advance of the Pre-Raphaelites, that he succeeded in making the revival of art comprise a wider and a profounder scope than they.
True, one of them was a sculptor, others men of letters ; but excepting the production of the short-lived magazine " The Germ," until Mr. Morris joined the movement the function of art in their hands had been confined practically to the making of pictures ; and thus the best of their works, in the nature of the case, could affect the public taste but indirectly and to a limited degree.
For a number of years such pictures as were exhibited by the painters of the Pre-Raphaelite school were to be found, as a rule, only in obscure galleries; many were not shown to the public at all, but passed direct from the artists' studios into the hands of private purchasers. In any event, not the many but the few could possibly become the fortunate possessors of original paintings.
It is, therefore, a supreme achievement of William Morris's to have brought Art, through the medium of the handicrafts, within reach of thousands who could never hope to obtain but a transitory view of Pre- Raphaelite pictures ; his distinction, by decorating the less pre- tending but no less necessary, articles of household furnishing, to have done more than any man in the present century to beautify the plain, every-day, home-life of the people.
That was a fitting tribute, paid in his official capacity of Vice- President of the Society of Arts, when, taking the chair at the reading of Mr. Morris's paper on the wood-cuts of Gothic Books, Sir George Birdwood thus introduced the lecturer : — " It is not only as a poet and an art critic that he is one of the first English- men of the Victorian age.
When the decorative arts of this country had, about the middle of the present century, become denationalised, it was Mr. William Morris ' who stemmed the torrent of a downward age,' and, by the vigour of his characteristic English genius, upraised those household arts again from the degradation of nearly two generations, and carried them to a perfection never before reached by them. A born decorator, he knew that it is decoration that animates architecture, and all 8 form, with life and beauty.
But being also a trained architect, he from the first recognized that ornament was but an accessory to construction of every kind, from the vessels turned on a potter's wheel to the grandest creations of the builder's master art. Thus, and by his commanding intellectual and moral personal influence with his contemporaries, the future of English decorative design, in all its applications, was redeemed by Mr.
Referring to the time when Mr. Morris found himself at the outset of his artistic career, the late Mr. William Bell Scott wrote : " Morris's first step in this direction was to article himself to George Edmund Street, then located in the University town as architect to the diocese " of Oxford. The very fact of his electing an architect's training proves how thoroughly William Morris, as compared with the others of the movement, had grasped the fundamental idea of the nature and essence of Art.
If not the first of them to recognize in theory, he was at any rate the first to act logically upon what is involved by the principle that all true ornament must be derived from and allied to some archetypal form of architecture, not necessarily in so pronounced a manner as to be obvious at first sight, yet always in such a way as may be disclosed on analysis. To William Morris architecture is at once the basis and crowning- point of every other art, the standard by which all the rest must be dominated and appraised : again and again has he insisted that no sound art can exist as the common practice and possession of a nation which has lost its architectural traditions.
Thus he him- self puts the case; — "A true architectural work is a building duly provided with all the necessary furniture, decorated with all due ornament, according to the use, quality and dignity of the building, from mere mouldings or abstract lines, to the great epical works of sculpture and painting, which, except as decora- tions of the nobler form of such buildings, cannot be produced at all.
So looked on, a work of architecture is a harmonious, co- operative work of art, inclusive of all the serious arts, all those which are not engaged in the production of mere toys, or of ephemeral prettinesses. Whether or not he intend to devote his life to an architect's profession, no better education for an artist can be desired than that he should be strengthened at the beginning with an architectural back-bone.
Consider for instance the one continental decorator who, beside the honourable exception of M. Serrurier of Liege, may be said 9 d to share in any notable degree the aesthetic qualities of the English school, that is, of the school of Morris. Although it is true that neither does Eugene Grasset any longer practise as an architect, still when one contrasts his work with that which generally passes for decoration in the modern French school, the remark- able breadth and versatility of his designs must be attributed to the early discipline of his architectural training.
Judged by the standard of the present day, Mr. Morris's choice of a master may be indeed not a little surprising. Nay, in view of Mr. Street's neo-thirteenth century platitudes, more particu- larly in view of his largest and most conspicuous performance, the Courts of Justice in Fleet Street, it is hard to imagine how, save by way of warning what at all hazards to avoid, there could have been anything to be learnt from such a teacher by the pupil so gifted.
Morris, with generous loyalty, has indeed written : " As to public buildings, Mr. Street's law-courts are the last attempt we are likely to see of producing anything reasonable or beautiful for that use. Moreover, for upwards of five years, from May , the date when, by the advice of Mr. Parker, he migrated from Wantage, Mr. Street had been quartered in Oxford. Thence he eventually moved to Montague Place, Bloomsbury ; but his residence in the University city coincided exactly with the space of Morris's undergraduate period.
During that time and onwards Mr. Street continued to maintain the kindliest attitude towards the leaders of the aesthetic revival. He felt truly that the aim of the young enthusiasts, who were striving for truth before everything, was, in their particular field, identical with the aim of the leaders of the Gothic revival in the field of architecture.
His known views speedily brought him into relations of friendship with many of those who belonged to the Pre-Raphaelite group, or were in sympathy with it. Morris having been drawn to look for the realization of his hopes under Mr. For a time, at least, he entered with enthusiasm into his master's projects. For instance, there happened an open competition of designs for a Cathedral to be erected at Lille. The announcement had been made in the previous year, The chief condition stipulated on was that the building must be in the French Gothic style.
Morris's principal was one of the English architects who prepared and sent in designs. Contrary to usual custom, the several drawings were shown to the public before being submitted to the jury for selection. Street, accompanied by William Morris, took the occasion to run over to Lille for a few days' visit, and wrote home thence with reference to the designs.
We are agreed naturally that I ought to have place No. Morris says the first. It was a comparatively short time that Morris continued under Street's tuition. Not the least of Morris's characteristics was his remarkable gift of concentration ; and this, together with the astounding rapidity with which he used to go straight to the root of a matter and mastered in the space of a few months, or even weeks, that of which it would take an ordinary mortal as many years of laborious application to learn may be the bare rudiments, fortunately made it unnecessary for him to submit to be hampered overlong by the irksome routine of office-work.
He preferred to sacrifice the premium he had paid, if by so doing he might strike out an independent line of action for himself. He never qualified nor entered the formal profession of architect. One circumstance, of no little importance in his subsequent career, Mr.
Morris owed to the period of his brief discipleship, namely his becoming acquainted with his friend Philip Webb, at that time employed in Mr. Street's office, at the present day well known as an architect in practice in Raymond Buildings, Gray's Inn. On going down from Oxford in , Mr. Morris settled in lodgings with his friend Burne-Jones at 17, Red Lion Square, where they shared a studio in common.
There was, indeed, at the beginning of the next year, some idea of extending the menage so as to form a sort of college of artists working together with kindred tastes and aims, but for some reason or other, the plan was not found to be practicable, and so nothing came of it. Another event of was the appearance of "The Oxford n and Cambridge Magazine," in the preparation of which, under the direction of Rev. Canon R. Dixon and Mr. William Fulford, Mr.
Morris took a prominent part. Conducted by members of the two Universities, the magazine was issued in London from the house of Messrs. Bell and Daldy. This serial lasted exactly a year, being published in monthly numbers from January to December inclusive. Originally sold at one shilling per part, it has now become both scarce and valuable. Morris's own copy is kept secure under lock and key ; while that in the British Museum is to be seen only by the reader who, passing through a barrier into an inner room, remains under the immediate obser- vation of one of the library officials.
The contents of the magazine consist of essays, tales, poems, and notices of books, all the matter except the verse being printed in double columns. One or two contributions are initialled, but not one appears with the full signature of its author. Dante Gabriel Rossetti, who, however, was not connected with the " Oxford and Cambridge Magazine " for the first half year of its existence, contributed " The Burden of Nineveh" to the August part, "The Blessed Damozel," a version of which already had appeared in " The Germ," to the November part, and "The Staff and Scrip" in December.
But the largest contributor was William Morris, who furnished a series of short prose romances, and a certain number of poems, which immediately signalized their author as a man of extra- ordinary talents, on the strength of which it was not rash for his friends and others to whom his identity was known to augur that a brilliant future in the world of letters awaited him.
It was evident that Ruskin had influenced him to no small extent, and also that he was imbued very deeply with the spirit of mediaeval romance. Morris published two years later. But as regards the prose writings, unhappily the day for the fulfilment of Bell Scott's prediction has not yet arrived.
Nor, seeing how severe a critic Mr. Morris was of his own work, and how sensitive he was on the subject of whatever he deemed immature experiments of his, was it probable that he ever would have consented to reprint any of his early writings in prose that were included in the "Oxford and Cambridge Magazine.
Morris's, " these strangely coloured and magical dreams," as Mr. Andrew Lang not inaptly calls them. If " Lindenborg Pool " may not be accounted among the best or the most original of Morris's tales, nevertheless there attaches to it a peculiar interest, because of its opening passage, " I read once in lazy humour Thorpe's ' Northern Mythology ' on a cold May night when the north wind was blowing; in lazy humour, but when I came to the tale that is here amplified, there was something in the tale that fixed my attention and made me think of it ; and whether I would or no, my thoughts ran in this way, as here follows.
So I felt obliged to write, and wrote accordingly, and by the time I had done the grey light filled all my room ; so I put out my candles, and went to bed, not without fear and trembling, for the morning twilight is so strange and lonely. OT more than nine months had expired when Morris, having thrown up his articles with Mr.
Street, came to Town. Established there with his friend Edward Burne-Jones, at an age when, on looking back after ten or eleven years, he deemed himself as having been "pretty much a boy," it was only natural that Morris should begin to enlarge his circle of literary and artistic acquaintances.
In a letter to William Bell Scott in , acknowledging the gift of a book of verse by that writer, Morris refers to these early days and thanks him for " the poems that I first found so sympathetic when I came up to London years ago. Their names are Morris and Jones. Jones's designs are marvels of finish and imaginative detail, unequalled by anything unless perhaps Albert Durer's finest works ; and Morris, though without practice as yet, has no less power, I fancy.
He has written some really wonderful poetry too. Nevertheless, he did not devote his energies exclusively to literature. In June, , Rossetti writes again to Bell Scott, " Morris has as yet done nothing in art, but is now busily painting his first picture, ' Sir Tristram after his illness, in the garden of King Mark's Palace, recognized by the dog he had given to Iseult,' from the ' Morte d'Arthur. William Michael Rossetti is the authority for saying that " the original Hogarth Club was so named on the ground that Hogarth was the first great figure in British art, and still remains one of the greatest.
Madox Brown not to speak of other projectors of the Club entertained this view very strongly, and I think it probable that he was the proposer of the name. Be that as it may, from its foundation and first meeting in July, , down to April, , when it was dissolved, the Hogarth Club proved a select resort of many distinguished men of the advanced artists and litterateurs of the time.
It counted among its members, beside William Morris and the two brothers Rossetti, Mr. Gillum, and Messrs. Swinburne, the Lushingtons, R. Martineau, Henry Wallis, P. Daniell, G. Halliday, W. Holman Hunt, Edward Lear, Val. Prinsep, W. At the picture exhibitions held under its auspices from time to time, works of the Pre-Raphaelite school were sure of finding a welcome.
Moving, after no long while, from its original premises at , Piccadilly, the Hogarth then continued for the remainder of its existence at 6, Waterloo Place. It had no connection of any sort — it may be observed — with the Club which at present bears the same name, in Dover Street. The year was one "which seems," says Mr. George Saintsbury in " Corrected Impressions," " to have exercised a very remarkable influence on the books and persons born in it," since " the books as biographers and bibliographers have before noticed were unusually epoch-making.
To be quite accurate one must not omit to record that the earliest work to bear the name of William Morris for author was a short poem, " Sir Galahad : a Christmas mystery " Messrs. Bell and Daldy ; but seeing that it only preceded " The Defence of Guenevere and other Poems " by a few months, and was incorporated in that volume, there is no need here to treat of it as a separate work. The significance of 15 " The Defence of Guenevere," all things considered, has never perhaps been appreciated as was due.
A young man, but twenty- four years old, Morris must be regarded for all intents and pur- poses as a pioneer in his kind. Tennyson's " Idylls of the King" had not as yet appeared ; nor ought it to be forgotten that at this date the published poems of Rossetti, who is generally accredited as standing to Morris in the relationship of master to disciple, did not consist of above a few occasional pieces contributed to perio- dicals.
One has no desire, of course, to deny that the older poet had already written a number of poems that Morris must have heard or read privately. Indeed, he himself was only too ready to acknowledge his indebtedness to Rossetti ; whereof the dedi- cation of " The Defence of Guenevere," " to my friend, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, painter," is evidence enough and to spare, if such were wanted.
But at the same time it must be borne in mind that Morris was before him in making the venture of pub- lishing a collection of poems that should court success or failure openly before the world. Woolner wrote to me at the time of publication, ' I believe they are exciting a good deal of attention among the intelligent on the outlook for something new. Saintsbury could write on the subject of Mr. Morris, " It has always seemed to me that not merely the general, but even the critical public, ranks him far below his proper station as a poet.
Walter Pater, in an essay on " Esthetic Poetry " , while as yet only the first part of " The Earthly Paradise " had appeared, accounts Morris as the type and personification of the poetry of the revived romantic school. This new poetry, according to him, takes possession of a trans- figured world, " and sublimates beyond it another still fainter and more spectral, which is literally an artificial or ' Earthly Para- dise.
Like some strange, second flowering after date, it renews on a more delicate type the poetry of a past age, but must not be confounded with it. Later the elements of mediaeval passion and mysticism were embodied in the works of Victor Hugo in France and of Heine in Germany. Pater discerns "a refinement upon this later, profounder mediaevalism " and " the first typical specimen of aesthetic poetry. Its like had not before been known in England ; where hitherto, as Mr. George Saintsbury rightly remarks, " only one or two snatches of Coleridge and Keats had caught the peculiar mediaeval tone which the pre-Raphaelites in poetry, following the pre-Raphaelites in art, were now about to sound.
Even ' La Belle Dame sans Merci,' that wonderful divination, in which Keats hit upon the true and very mediaeval, Neither of them was able to follow it up consistently : and Coleridge wittingly left "Christabel" a fragment. His " Defence of Guenevere " and the three poems next in order in the volume were satu- rated through and through with the true and vital essence of Arthurian romance ; while the remaining poems savoured not less thoroughly of the very atmosphere of the middle ages.
Withal there was some indefinable quality superadded of the poet's very own. And so, possessing as they did " the bizarrerie of a new thing in beauty," the " imperishable fantasies " of " The Defence of Guenevere " " did fill a fresh page in English poetry. The poem " Golden Wings " is not to be confounded with the prose tale which Morris contributed with the same title to the Magazine.
Often it is a problem to determine whether it was the verse of one that suggested the painting of the other or vice versa. Thus the Arthurian legend, rhymed by Morris in " The Defence of Guenevere," was with Rossetti and his friends at this time a favourite for illustration.
Not only are the wall paintings in the Debating Hall, the present Library, of the Union Society at Oxford, a case in point ; but a certain number also of sketches and water-colours of Rossetti's, belonging to this period, bear the identical titles borne by poems of Morris's, e.
Some of these works of Rossetti's were actual commissions executed by him for Morris, from whom afterwards they were purchased by Mr. George Rae. Again, " Burd Ellayne," the central figure in Morris's spirited ballad of " Welland River," was pictured by Rossetti and became the pro- perty of the late Mr.
Leathart of Gateshead on Tyne. In the way of reading, Pastor William Meinhold's wonderful romance of " Sidonia the Sorceress " was, to use Morris's own words, " a great favourite with the more literary part of the pre-Raphaelite artists in the earlier days of that movement. Morris simply revelled in the description of the knights riding into the hall, each with his blazoned banner displayed ; and one can imagine how he would have relished giving the order, " the kinsman in full armour shall ride into the hall upon his war-horse, bearing the banner of his house in his hand, and all my retainers shall follow on horses, each bearing his banner also, and shall range them- selves by the great window of the hall ; and let the windows be open, that the wind may play through the banners and make the spectacle yet grander.
Nor did the deep 18 impression fade from his mind with the lapse of time, but was destined to take practical form years afterwards in a reprint of the book from the Kelmscott Press. Indeed, throughout the career of the two friends nothing is more striking than the close parallel presented in the subjects chosen by them for treatment in their several ways, by Morris for poetry, by Burne-Jones for pictorial illustration.
But these are points which will have to be detailed later on. Meanwhile, to resume the consideration of " The Defence of Guenevere and other Poems. The same poem may illustrate Morris's gift of conveying, and that too from a point of view as fresh as it is convincing, the most graphic impression in the shortest number of words : e. Wind, wind, unhappy!
Here is a picture from " King Arthur's Tomb " : — " I gazed upon the arras giddily, Where the wind set the silken kings a-sway. No paraphrasing of words, no further detail could express the sense more vividly or more completely than the poet has done in these four short, simple lines. It may not be amiss, before leaving the subject of " The Defence of Guenevere," to gather from the writings of some com- petent critics a few judgments concerning the work ; dismissing, before the rest, that estimate which is the least favourable.
Henry G. Hewlett, in the " Contemporary Review " for December, , is of opinion that " Quaint archaisms of diction, forced and bald rhymes, wilful obscurity, harshness, not to say ugliness of metaphor, disfigure nearly every page. He had so saturated his imagination with the glow of chivalric romance and Catholic mythology as to be incapable for the moment of anything beyond reproduction.
But the receptive and assimilative power which enabled him to apprehend thus intimately the spirit of so remote an age, and imitate thus faith- fully the relics of its living literature, required only time and 20 training to mature into one of the richest of poetic faculties.
No sign of this power is more marked in the volume than the tone of naif unconsciousness which the writer has caught from his models. His personality is never visible ; he never preaches ; dispenses praise and blame but rarely, and then in accordance with a standard not of his own raising. With calm impartiality he sets forth in successive pictures the double aspect in which the love of Guenevere for Lancelot seems to have presented itself to mediaeval imagination, — the view adopted by Chivalry, and the view sanctioned by the Church.
In 'The Defence of Guenevere' she is a Phryne, voluptuous, imperial, irresistible ; in ' King Arthur's Tomb,' a Magdalen, tortured by remorse and tempted by passion, but sustained by penitence and faith unto the end. In ' Sir Galahad ' the portrait of the saint-knight is painted with a truthfulness that atones for whatever clumsiness of handling may at first repel us. He is represented as setting out in his quest of the San-Greal with sharp misgivings of spirit as to the career of chastity to which he must vow himself.
He witnesses the tender leave-taking of a lady and her knight, and thinks sorrowfully that for him no maiden will mourn if he falls. He recalls the loves of Lancelot and Guenevere, of Tristram and Iseult, and is tempted to envy their happiness and forget their sin. But in the chapel where he passes his first vigil, he has a vision of " ' One sitting on the altar as a throne, Whose face no man could say he did not know, And though the bell still rang, He sat alone, With raiment half blood-red, half white as snow.
His attempts seem to us as successful as any that have since been made. Andrew Lang writes, " Leaving the Arthurian cycle Mr. Morris entered on his specially sympathetic period — the gloom and sad sunset glory of the late 2S G fourteenth century, the age of Froissart, and wicked wasteful wars. To Froissart it all seemed one magnificent pageant of knightly and kingly fortunes ; he only murmurs ' a great pity ' for the death of a knight or the massacre of a town. It is rather the pity of it that Mr.
The astonishing vividness, again, of the tragedy told in ' Geffray Teste Noire ' is like that of a vision in a magic mirror or crystal ball, rather than like a picture suggested by printed words. We look through a ' magic casement opening on the foam ' of the old waves of war. Motives and facts and story are unimportant and out of view.
The pictures arise distinct, un- summoned, spontaneous, like the faces and places which are flashed on our eyes between sleeping and waking. Fantastic too, but with more of recognizable human setting, is ' Golden Wings. Buxton Forman, in " Our Living Poets " , says of" The Defence of Guenevere and other Poems," the " volume has very striking affinities with the poetry of more than one contemporary writer.
Rossetti's influence is the easiest to discern ; but there are also several attempts at psychological art, clearly indicating Browning's influence. Connected mainly with the age of Chivalry in subject, every page is full of an ex- quisite tender feeling; and in many instances there is great splen- dour of imagination. Several small poems are master-pieces in their way ; and every poem in the book is full of beauties.
But such pieces as ' Shameful Death,' ' The Judgment of God,' and ' Old Love,' monologues dealing subtly with the soul, have more real analogy with ballad poetry than with monologue poetry of the modern type, and would probably have been more perfect had they been executed in ballad form.
In ' The Judgment of God ' in particular, the actual point of time whereat the monologue is spoken is anything but clearly distinguished from points of past time referred to. It is interesting to compare this piece with ' The Haystack in the Floods,' which is admirably graphic in narration, and as complete and excellent in its degree as are some later higher flights of Mr. With Mr. Morris this want of perspicuity finds its preventive in direct narration, as in ' The Haystack in the Floods.
Morris's own clear objective style. The physiology and psychology in the sketch of Jehane are alike excellent. It is probable that, were Mr. Morris treating a similar subject to this now, we should miss a certain fierceness that exists in it as matters stand.
Over the earliest work of the artist. Here and there it met with eager recogni- tion and earnest applause; nowhere, if I err not, with just praise or blame worth heeding. It seems to have been now lauded and now decried as the result and expression of a school rather than a man, of a theory or tradition rather than a poet or student.
Such things as were in the book are taught and learnt in no school but that of instinct. In form, in structure, in composition, few poems can be. Morris, which deal with the legend of Arthur and Guenevere. I do not speak here of form in the abstract and absolute sense. I speak of that secondary excellence always necessary to perfection but not always indispensable to the existence of art. These first poems of Mr. Morris are not malformed ;.
Take that one for example called ' King Arthur's Tomb. There is scarcely any connection here, and scarcely com- position. But where among other and older poets of his time and country, is there one comparable for perception and expression of tragic truth, of subtle and noble, terrible and piteous things?
Where a touch of passion at once so broad and so sure? The figures here given have the blood and breath, the shape and 23 step of life ; they can move and suffer ; their repentance is as real as their desire ; their shame lies as deep as their love.
They are at once remorseful for the sin and regretful of the pleasure that is past. The retrospective vision of Lancelot and of Guenevere is as passionate and profound as life. Riding towards her without hope, in the darkness and heat of the way, he can but divert and sustain his spirit by the recollection of her loveliness and her love, seen long since asleep and waking, in another place than this, on a distant night.
Retrospect and vision, natural memories and spiritual, here coalesce ; and how exquisite is the retrospect, and how passionate the vision, of past light and colour in the sky, past emotion and conception in the soul! Not in the idyllic school is a chord ever struck, a note ever sounded, so tender and subtle as this. Again, when Guenevere has maddened herself and him with 'wild words of reproach and remorse, abhorrence and attraction, her sharp and sudden memory of old sights and sounds and splendid irrevocable days finds word and form not less noble and faithful to fact and life.
Such verses are not forgetable. They are not, indeed, — as are the ' Idylls of the King,' — the work of a dexterous craftsman in full practice. Little beyond dexterity, a rare eloquence, and a laborious patience of hand, has been given to the one or denied to the other. These are good gifts and great ; but it is better to want clothes than limbs. Pater, in the work already quoted, says : " The poem which gives its name to the volume is a thing tormented and awry with passion, like the body of Guenevere defending herself from the charge of adultery, and the accent falls in strange, un- wonted places with the effect of a great cry.
Reverie, illusion, delirium : they are the three stages of a fatal descent both in the religion and the loves of the Middle Ages. The English poet, too, has learned the secret. He has diffused through ' King Arthur's Tomb ' the maddening white glare of the sun, the tyranny of the moon, not tender and far-off, but close down — the sorcerer's moon, large and feverish. The colouring is intricate and delirious, as of ' scarlet lilies.
In ' Galahad : a Mystery,' the frost of Christmas night on the chapel stones acts as a strong narcotic : a sudden shrill ringing pierces through the numbness : a voice proclaims that the Grail has gone forth through the great forest.
It is in the ' Blue Closet ' that this delirium reaches its height with a singular beauty, reserved perhaps for the enjoy- ment of the few. Those in whom what Rousseau calls les frayeurs nocturnes are constitutional, know what splendour they 24 give to the things of the morning. It is the very soul of the bridegroom which goes forth to the bride : inanimate things are longing with him : all the sweetness of the imaginative loves of the Middle Age, with a superadded spirituality of touch all its own, is in that!
Robert Steele wrote : " Living as we do in surround- ings so modified by the efforts of its author, we cannot fully estimate the worth of this little volume. It is totally unlike any other of his works. It is, on the contrary, altogether inadequate. For this remarkable collec- tion of poems stands alone not only in the literature of our age and of our country, but, what is more to the present purpose, alone also among its author's own productions.
Before the work was yet issued he had applied himself, with his wonted industry, it must not be said to the composing — for the very idea of any- thing forced and artificial was foreign to the spontaneity of his nature — but to the inditing of more poetry ; the greater part of which, however, was suffered to re- main unpublished. Nor would it, maybe, have survived at all, but for the friendly intervention of Mr.
Charles Fairfax Murray, who preserves the manuscript among the most valued of his treasures. Of the number of Morris's poems that belong to this early period, nothing has appeared beside " The God of the Poor," printed in " The Fortnightly," , and the song, " In the white-flowered hawthorn brake," which was introduced into the story of " Ogier the Dane " in " The Earthly Paradise.
Among the other unpublished MS. Murray is an additional scene to " Sir Peter Harpdon's End. Theodore Watts-Dunton, in an obituary notice in " The Athenaeum," says, " Morris could and did write humorous poetry, and then with- held it from publication.
For the splendid poem of ' Sir Peter Harpdon's End,' printed in his first volume, Morris wrote a humorous scene of the highest order, in which the hero said to his faithful fellow-captive and follower, John Curzon, that, as their deaths were so near, he felt a sudden interest in what had never interested him before — the story of John's life before they had been brought so close to each other.
The heroic but dull- witted soldier acceded to his master's request, and the incoherent, muddle-headed way in which he gave his autobiography was full of a dramatic and subtle humour. This he refused to print, in deference, I suspect, to a theory of poetic art. Edmund Gosse writes in the " St. James's Gazette," within a few days after Morris's death : " It is said that vast sections of ' The Earthly Paradise' remain unpublished; and I can vouch for it that more than twenty years ago I heard 26 the poet read, in his full, slightly monotonous voice, a long story of ' Amis and Amylion ' I think these were the names , which has never, to my knowledge, appeared in print.
Rossetti used to declare that there was a room, a 'blue closet,' in the Queen's- square house, entirely crammed with Morris's poetry from floor to ceiling. This was a humorous exaggeration of that wonder- ful fluency which was a characteristic of Morris's genius. Thus Mr. George Saintsbury, while avowing himself an absolute stranger to William Morris, declares that he has " been told that all the defaulting poems exist ; " and, in addition, a writer in " The Sunday Times," on the day following the poet's death, understands " that there is a large mass of unpublished material which may be found more or less available for future issue.
Saintsbury is clearly alluding to those poems which were advertised shortly beforehand but did not eventually make their appearance in " The Earthly Paradise. Fairfax Murray, com- prises a prologue to " The Earthly Paradise " in four-line stanzas, and a set of verses for the months of the year. All these portions of the work were re-written and other passages substituted in their room when the poem assumed its final state. From the MS.
Morris began to write again after the space of seven silent years or more that ensued upon the appearance of " The Defence of Guenevere. His poems had, it is true, " found a few staunch friends," but, for the rest, " were absolutely neglected by the ' reading public' " It is on record that only some copies of the first issue of the work were sold. Therefore in stating, as he does in his " Reminiscences," that the publication of " The Defence of Guenevere " was " what gave Morris his proper position," 27 Bell Scott must be taken as referring to the judgment of their own limited set.
For he has to admit that, in spite of everything, " the book was still-born. The considerable body of perfectly- informed but unsympathetic professional critics are, strange to say, so useless as directors of public taste that they have never yet lifted the right man into his right place at once. After repeated volumes had attracted public favour," but not till then, a demand arose for Morris's earliest volume, and it had to be reprinted, the stock of " the original impression having been returned to the paper-mill.
Francis Hueffer, the author of the memoir prefixed to the Tauchnitz selection from Morris's poems, " little was wanting to make Morris follow his friend Burne-Jones' example, and leave the pen for the brush. There is indeed still extant from his hand an unfinished picture evincing a remarkable sense of colour.
It is a wonder that this painting is yet intact, for its history, a somewhat curious one, is as follows. Left at Ford Madox Brown's, it was conveyed thence by his son, Oliver Madox Brown, and given to Rossetti, who kept it by him with the view of repainting it, because he was not satisfied that it did justice to the lady it portrayed.
However, he never carried out his intention, and, after his death, the picture passed, with other property of the deceased painter, into the hands of his brother, William Michael. In this gentle- man's possession it might possibly have still remained, but that he, being informed of its rightful ownership within a few months of the death of Dante Gabriel Rossetti, took steps to have the painting returned to Mr.
While staying temporarily in Oxford in the autumn of William Morris met the lady, who, two years later, became his wife ; the marriage, appropriately enough in the case of so eminent a scholar of English as the bridegroom, taking place in the old Saxon-towered Church of St. Michael in the Corn.
There is no need to attempt any description of Mrs. Morris, since her features have been immortalized in numerous drawings and paintings from the hand of Dante Gabriel Rossetti. Morris's engagement necessitated the providing a suitable home, with the preparation of which he was now busily occupy- ing himself. The house was not got ready in time for him to take up his residence there at his marriage, so he had to wait awhile, and moved in shortly after. One of these pieces of needlework was taken eventually to Kelmscott Manor and hung there.
It was powdered all over with a repeated pattern, a design of Morris's of the quaintest description, — birds, for all the world like those in a Noah's ark, trees as stiff-looking as the clipped trees in a Dutch garden or a child's toy-box, and scrolls inscribed with the motto " If I can. Another strip of em- broidery executed for the same purpose, of a floral pattern, drawn likewise by Mr.
Morris, was given by him, after its removal from its original position, to Sir Edward Burne-Jones, and is now at his house at Rottingdean. The site Morris chose for his new house was an orchard at Upton, near Bexley Heath, amid "the rose-hung lanes of woody Kent. Morris was not his own architect. To build his house he employed his friend Philip Webb, who, however, in effect was merely carrying out Morris's directions, more par- ticularly in the design of the internal fixtures.
The build- ing was given the appropriate name of "The Red House. Picturesque and irregular of construction, it had an architectural char- the red house. It was, for its time, a bold innovation, which cannot be said to have been without extraordinary results for good. Nay, as an experiment on the part of a man who had both the hopefulness and the dauntless will necessary to enable him to make a stand against the tyranny of custom, to William Morris is owing the credit of having initiated, with his Red House, a new era in house- building.
Morris set forth his views on the subject of architecture in a paper he contributed to " The Fortnightly Review " in May, Up to a period long after the death of Shelley and Keats and Scott, architecture could do nothing but produce on the one hand pedantic imitations of classical architecture of the most revolting ugliness, and ridiculous travesties of Gothic build- ings, not quite so ugly, but meaner and sillier ; and on the other hand, the utilitarian brick-box with a slate lid which the Anglo- 30 Saxon generally in modern times considers as a good sensible house with no non- sense about it.
We could see no reason for it and accordingly our hope was strong ; for though we had learned some- thing of the art and history of the Middle Ages we had not learned enough. Any- how, this period of fresh hope and partial insight produced many interesting buildings and other works of art, and afforded a pleasant time indeed to the hopeful but very small minority engaged in it, in spite of all vexations and disappointments. This man was John Ruskin.
By a marvellous inspiration of genius I can call it nothing else he attained at one leap to a true conception of mediaeval art, which years of minute study had not gained for others. From that time all was changed. I do not say that the change in the Gothic re- vivalists produced by this discovery was sudden, but it was effective. It has gradually sunk deep into the intelligence of the art and literature of to-day. The above passages were written, it is important to note, some thirty-five years after the appearance of " The Stones of Venice.
So, once convinced that the causes of the dearth of sound art amongst us lay deeper than he had at first suspected, viz. Hence he learned to look for the fulfilment of his aspirations in the ideal of a future, wherein a reconstructed society should even surpass anything hitherto achieved in the most glorious of days bygone. And he himself, young and ardent as he was at the time, would naturally be as loth as any among them to accept conclusions so tremendous.
Had the consequent lesson come home to him, and had his reluctance given way earlier than it did, it is scarcely too much to assert 32 that the Red House might not have existed at all. At any rate, Morris built that once only, but never afterwards. The date of the Red House is , as the vane on the top of the roof shows. It had a fixed settle all round the walls, a curious music-gallery entered by a stair outside the room, break- ing out high upon the gable, and no furniture but a long table of oak reaching nearly from end to end.
Bell Scott, though right enough in his impres- sion of the general effect of the furnishing and so on, is decidedly wrong in detail. In fact, he confounds the features of two separate rooms, and would lead one to suppose, from the way he speaks of them, that all were to be found together in one apart- ment. Morris did whatever seemed good to him unhesitatingly, and it has been very good. The deep red colour, the great sloping, tiled roofs ; the small-paned windows ; the low, wide porch and massive door ; the surrounding garden divided into many squares, hedged by sweetbriar or wild rose, each enclosure with its own parti- cular show of flowers ; on this side a green alley with a bowling green, on that orchard walks amid gnarled old fruit-trees ; — all struck me as vividly picturesque and uniquely original.
A solid oak table with trestle-like legs stood in the middle of the red-tiled floor, while a fireplace gave a hospitable look to the hall place. In the centre of two of these windows are single figure panels ; the one representing Love, in a rich red tunic, flames of fire at his back, and a stream of water traversing the flowery sward at his feet ; the other, Fate, robed to the feet in green, with a wheel of fortune in her hand.
Immediately to the right as one enters the hall is a wooden structure, the lower part projecting to form a bench seat ; the upper part being a press or cupboard, with unfinished colour decorations. On the outside of the two doors of it are figure compositions, sketched in, and begun in oils, but left in- complete : while inside are some interesting experiments in diapering in black on a gold ground, by Mr.
Morris's hand. Beyond this press is "the door of the dining room, the living room in fact. This is a long room and lies parallel to the hall. The fireplace stands out in the middle of the wall facing the entrance. Near the door, and occupying the greater part of the wall space to the left as one enters the room, a promi- nent feature " was a wide dresser which reached to the ceiling and was ornamented richly with painted decoration.
By the fireplace stood a mov- able settle, with high back, the panels of it filled with leather, gilt and coloured. The chairs were plain black, with rush seats. Morris's example. Opposite to the front door, beneath an open pyramidal sort of lantern roof, rises the wide oaken staircase, with Gothic newel- posts at the angles; the underneath part of it not boxed in, as the ordinary custom is to conceal the construction, but left open and showing the form of the steps from below.
But the chief means of lighting was a large window at the end of the room furthest from the door. Facing the window was the most important feature of the room, viz. This painted cabinet, of which the effect was gorgeous, nearly filled the end of the room, while at one side was a wooden ladder stair-way by which one could mount to the upper part of it and find room to sit or move about on the top, as on a balcony.
From this stage another short ladder led into a storage-loft in the roof beyond. Here also stood a splendid wardrobe," decorated all over with gilding and colour, a wedding present painted and given by Burne-Jones. Morris himself executed part of the decoration on the inner folds of the doors. The subject which covers the front of this wardrobe is " The Prioress's Tale " from Chaucer ; perhaps to the modern reader the most familiar of all the " Canterbury Tales," through Wordsworth's popularized version of it.
The legend is not to be confounded with that of Little St. Hugh of Lincoln, though there are certain points in common. The various scenes of the story are represented, as was customary with mediaeval artists, all in the same picture, the principal subject being on a larger scale than the rest and occupying the foremost place in the composition. It depicts the Blessed Virgin stooping over the pit which contains the body of the murdered boy, and placing on his tongue a grain which should enable him in death to continue singing " Alma Redemp- toris Mater " to her praise.
Towards the end of the year i Burne-Jones, while on a visit at the Red House, commenced a series of paintings in tempera upon the end wall of the large drawing-room there ; Morris also himself contributing somewhat to the decorative work, of which, however, the more important share was neces- sarily that undertaken by Burne-Jones. The subject was the mediaeval story of Sir Degravaunt, another of those romances which, like " Sidonia the Sorceress," had begun to exercise a powerful charm upon both the painter and his host.
The charm, indeed, survived to the end, as was testified by the fact that a Kelmscott Press edition of " Sire Degravaunt," with a wood-cut frontispiece designed by Burne-Jones, had for some time past been in preparation, although unhappily Mr. Morris did not live to see it issued, dying as he did before it was ready.
In one of them Burne-Jones introduced the portraits of Mr. Morris, seated side by side, in robes of state and crowned with coronets, in the characters of Sir Degra- vaunt and his bride in the scene of the wedding banquet. These paintings are not in a good position for light, but they are in good hands and well cared for, having been covered with glass to insure their preservation.
Near about the same time, i. He also painted the first meeting and the last meeting of Dante and Beatrice ; in the middle, between the two scenes, being an allegorical figure of Love, holding a dial-plate in his hands. These panels were eventually removed when Morris parted with the Red House, and were framed in the form of a diptych. Morris did not occupy the Red House above six years. He gave it up at the end of that space and came back to live in London in William Michael Rossetti in the work contain- ing his brother's life and letters that a " detailed history of the firm of Morris, Marshall and Faulkner, or Morris and Co.
Philip Webb, who, if any, should be in possession of the necessary particulars, must it be looked to furnish a full account ; especially of facts and incidents relating to the earlier days, when the firm was more of the nature of an informal association of friends working together than a business partnership in the ordinary sense of the term. To whom belongs the credit of having been the first to conceive the idea of the artistic venture that has developed since into the business of Messrs.
The initiation of the project has been attributed at various times to various members of the original firm ; but the balance seems rather to incline in favour of Ford Madox Brown as one of the patriarchs of the revival. However, one thing at any rate is beyond doubt, that the whole undertaking owes its success to the patience and energy, to the enthusiasm, the originality, in a word, to the genius of William Morris, whose name it bears.
It has been shown how the furnishing of his own house at Bexley Heath had been made by Morris the occasion for exercis- ing his ingenuity in embroidery design, in ceiling and mural decoration, and in several other ways, and generally of acquiring practical experience in different branches of domestic art. But what he began then by doing on a small scale, was destined to engage him from that time forward for the remainder of his life.
There is but slight necessity to enumerate the horrors proper to the early Victorian period — the Berlin woolwork and the bead mats ; the crochet antimacassars upon horsehair sofas ; the wax flowers under glass shades ; the monstrosities in stamped brass and gilded stucco ; chairs, tables, and other furniture hideous with veneer and curly distortions ; the would-be naturalistic vegetable-patterned carpets with false shadows and misplaced 38 perspective ; and all the despicable legion of mean shams and vulgarities which have been exposed and held up to ridicule times without number.
The memory of them, indissolubly associated with the geranium and the crinoline, is only too painfully vivid to the minds of many of us. It is sufficient to say that love nor money could procure beautiful objects of contemporary manu- facture for any purpose of household furnishing or adornment when William Morris undertook the Herculean and seemingly hopeless task of decorative reform, and wrought and brought deliverance from the thraldom of the ugly, which oppressed all the so-called arts of this country.
Two years and more elapsed from the time the proposition was first mooted ; and during that interval not a few preliminary meetings were held, not a few times merely was the scheme dis- cussed, before anything like a definite working plan was deter- mined on. At one time two or three of those who originally constituted themselves members of the firm would assemble to discuss their plans at Madox Brown's house at 13, Fortess Terrace, now Junction Road, Kentish Town ; at another time at Burne-Jones's rooms in Charlotte Street, Fitzroy Square ; at another time again at Morris's own studio in Red Lion Square.
Morris is described by one, who met him first on one such occasion, as keenly alert and full of energy and move- ment, — altogether a most striking personality. There were other meetings, or, as they used to be called, " gatherings of the clans," at Madox Brown's house, for instance when himself took the chair and a larger number were present. Several ladies also who were interested as taking part in the work were present on certain occasions. At one of the general meetings, which took place about the middle of the year , it was announced that rooms, for business premises, had been taken at No.
Ford Madox Hueffer, in his record of the life and works of Ford Madox Brown, " of starting a sort of co-operative agency for supplying artistic furniture and surroundings primarily to them- selves, but also to the general public, each of those present," it was agreed, " should lay down a stipulated sum. The rules of incorporation were briefly : that each member should con- tribute designs for the various articles of use and ornament for which demand arose, and should be paid for his work in the usual course of events, before the profits, if any, were shared.
Bodley, the architect, had promised to commit the execution of certain orders for stained glass and other decorations to the firm, 39 provided they were organized so as to be able to undertake them. Proposals as to ways and means having thus already been formulated, the business, under the style of Messrs.
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