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Background. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common liver malig- nancy and the 5th cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Contact. Secretariat of the School of Medicine. + Tel: ; Email: [email protected] Connect. School of Medicine's presence in social networks.

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Obesity, 29 3 Journal of Adhesive Dentistry, 23 2 Multiple Sclerosis, 27 3 The challenge of interprofessional collaboration in emergency department team triage - An interpretive description. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 77 3 Thorax, 76 3 Variants, vaccines and vaccination passports: Challenges and chances for travel medicine in Chen, Lin H ; Steffen, Robert Journal of Travel Medicine, 28 2 :Epub ahead of print.

Data linkage to evaluate the long-term risk of HIV infection in individuals seeking post-exposure prophylaxis. Factors influencing post-ICU psychological distress in family members of critically ill patients: a linear mixed-effects model. BioPsychoSocial Medicine, Children's moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on weekdays versus weekend days: a multi-country analysis.

Cytoplasmic synthesis of endogenous Alu complementary DNA via reverse transcription and implications in age-related macular degeneration. Sports Medicine, 51 2 American Journal of Epidemiology, 3 Rohrmann, Sabine ; Hermann, Silke Der Onkologe, 27 2 Physiotherapy use and access-barriers in persons with multiple sclerosis: A cross-sectional analysis. Multiple Sclerosis and Related Disorders, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2 The association of sex steroid hormone concentrations with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and liver enzymes in US men.

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Neues aus der HIV-Diagnostik. Frontiers in Psychiatry, Travellers returning from the island of Zanzibar colonized with MDR Escherichia coli strains: assessing the impact of local people and other sources. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 76 2 Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control, Systematic early versus late mobilization or standard early mobilization in mechanically ventilated adult ICU patients: systematic review and meta-analysis. Critical Care, Temporal trends and regional disparities in cancer screening utilization: an observational Swiss claims-based study.

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Insights from regional and short-term biodiversity monitoring datasets are valuable: a reply to Daskalova et al. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 14 1 NO2 and PM2. Environmental Health Perspectives, 1 Kook, Lucas ; Hothorn, Torsten Regularized Transformation Models: The tramnet Package. R Journal, 13 1 Serial assessment of somatic and cardiovascular development in patients with single ventricle undergoing Fontan procedure. International Journal of Cardiology, TOURIST2 — Tracking of urgent risks in swiss travellers to the 6 main travel destinations — Feasibility and ethical considerations of a smartphone application-based study.

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Future public health governance: investing in young professionals. International Journal of Public Health, 65 9 Impact of cardiac rehabilitation participation on patient-reported lifestyle changes one year after myocardial infarction. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 27 19 Night-to-night variability of respiratory events in obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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Heavy drinking habits are associated with worse in-hospital outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndrome: an insight from the AMIS plus registry. Cardiology, 12 Implementation and evaluation of a care bundle for prevention of non-ventilator-associated hospital-acquired pneumonia nvHAP - a mixed-methods study protocol for a hybrid type 2 effectiveness-implementation trial. BMC Infectious Diseases, 20 1 Prospective long-term follow-up after first-line subcutaneous cladribine in hairy cell leukemia: a SAKK trial.

Blood advances, 4 15 Buri, Muriel ; Hothorn, Torsten Model-based random forests for ordinal regression. International Journal of Biostatistics, 16 2 Efficacy of quadruple treatment on different types of pre-operative anaemia: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Anaesthesia, 75 8 Cancer Medicine, 9 15 Improving decision making through presentation of viscoelastic tests as a 3D animated blood clot: the Visual Clot.

Significance, 17 4 Lung Cancer, Temporal trends in in-hospital complications of acute coronary syndromes: Insights from the nationwide AMIS Plus registry. American Journal of Medicine, 8 Steurer-Stey, Claudia Praxis, 10 Rising temperature and its impact on receptivity to malaria transmission in Europe: A systematic review. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with coexistent atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter. International journal of cardiology. Swiss Medical Forum, 20 Association of prestroke metformin use, stroke severity, and thrombolysis outcome.

Neurology, 95 4 :ee Rohrmann, Sabine ; Pestoni, Giulia Using Dietary Indices-What's Next? Nutrients, 12 7 Walking-related digital mobility outcomes as clinical trial endpoint measures: protocol for a scoping review. BMJ Open, 10 7 :e Forests, 11 7 Automatic recognition, segmentation, and sex assignment of nocturnal asthmatic coughs and cough epochs in smartphone audio recordings: observational field study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22 7 :e Vaccine, 38 33 Zika among international travellers presenting to GeoSentinel sites, implications for clinical practice.

Journal of Travel Medicine, 27 4 :taaa A research agenda for digital proximity tracing apps. Predictors of long-term employment among patients with cystic fibrosis undergoing lung transplantation. Respiration, 99 8 Nutrients, 12 7 :E Agreement between trainees and supervisors on first-year entrustable professional activities for anaesthesia training.

British Journal of Anaesthesia, 1 Automated tracheal intubation in an airway manikin using a robotic endoscope: a proof of concept study. Anaesthesia, 75 7 Siegfried, Sandra ; Hothorn, Torsten Count transformation models. Methods in Ecology and Evolution, 11 7 Executive function deficits mediate the association between very preterm birth and behavioral problems at school-age.

Early Human Development, Medication as a risk factor for hospitalization due to heart failure and shock: a series of case-crossover studies in Swiss claims data. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 76 7 Occupational exposure and the risk of airway obstruction and mortality. International Journal of Public Health, 65 6 Pharmacoeconomics, 38 7 Prevalence of somatic and psychiatric morbidity across occupations in Switzerland and its correlation with suicide mortality: results from the Swiss National Cohort BMC Psychiatry, 20 1 Frailty, underweight and impaired mobility are associated with institutionalisation after post-acute care.

Radiotherapy and Oncology, Nutrients, 12 6 Age-specific health-related quality of life in disease-free long-term prostate cancer survivors versus male population controls-results from a population-based study. Supportive Care in Cancer, 28 6 Association of dietary intake of milk and dairy products with blood concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 IGF-1 in Bavarian adults. European Journal of Nutrition, 59 4 Impact of intravenous thrombolysis on functional outcome in patients with mild ischemic stroke without large vessel occlusion or rapidly improving symptoms.

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Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 18 6 Evaluating the cost-effectiveness of early compared to late or no biologic treatment to manage Crohn's disease using real world data. Nutrients, 12 5 Time trend of suicide in Swiss male farmers and comparison with other men: a cohort study. Digital health and the COVID epidemic: an assessment framework for apps from an epidemiological and legal perspective. Low repeatability of Epworth Sleepiness Scale after short intervals in a sleep clinic population.

Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 16 5 Prognostic models for predicting clinical disease progression, worsening and activity in people with multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Library, 5 :CD Baseline-adjusted proportional odds models for the quantification of treatment effects in trials with ordinal sum score outcomes.

Nittas, Vasileios ; von Wyl, Viktor COVID and telehealth: a window of opportunity and its challenges. Journal of Nutrition, 5 Habitat enhancements for reptiles in a beech forest may increase fungal species richness. Biodiversity and Conservation, 29 6 Value in Health, 23 5 Survival forests under test: Impact of the proportional hazards assumption on prognostic and predictive forests for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis survival. Statistical Methods in Medical Research, 29 5 Biometrical Journal, 62 3 Impact of osteosynthesis in fracture care: a cost comparison study.

Journal of Comparative Effectiveness Research, 9 7 BMJ Open, 10 4 :e How do sustained birth tears after vaginal birth affect birth tear patterns in a subsequent birth? Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 48 4 Pawel, Samuel ; Held, Leonhard Probabilistic forecasting of replication studies.

Bayesian spatial modelling of childhood cancer incidence in Switzerland using exact point data: a nationwide study during International Journal of Health Geographics, No time for dilemma: mass gatherings must be suspended. HIV Medicine, 21 4 Nittas, Vasileios Developing mobile self-tracking for chronic disease prevention: Why listening to users matters? International Journal of Public Health, 65 3 Different worlds Confirmatory versus exploratory research. Significance, 17 2 How do patients enter the healthcare system after the first onset of multiple sclerosis symptoms?

The influence of setting and physician specialty on speed of diagnosis. Multiple Sclerosis, 26 4 Increase in Airway Obstruction between and in Switzerland. An Observational Study. Annals of the American Thoracic Society, 17 4 Sports Medicine, 50 4 Respiratory Care, 65 4 Annals of Oncology, 31 4 The role of causal inference in health services research II: a framework for causal inference.

The Admit-AF risk score: A clinical risk score for predicting hospital admissions in patients with atrial fibrillation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Short-term neurological improvement in neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy predicts neurodevelopmental outcome at 18—24 months. Journal of Perinatal Medicine, 48 3 Erratum for Sekaggya-Wiltshire et al. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 64 4 :e Nutrients, 12 3 Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 33 2 :e Variations in accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time across Europe - harmonized analyses of 47, children and adolescents.

Covid and community mitigation strategies in a pandemic. BMJ : British medical journal, m The mechanisms responsible for improved information transfer in avatar-based patient monitoring: A Multicenter Comparative Eye-Tracking Study. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 22 3 :e Capturing interprofessional collaboration between physicians and nurses in an acute care setting.

A validation study of the revised German version of the Collaborative Practice Scales. Journal of Interprofessional Care, 34 2 Measles, vaccines and types of perception bias in public debates. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 70 6 Comparing the lung cancer burden of ambient particulate matter using scenarios of air quality standards versus acceptable risk levels.

International Journal of Public Health, 65 2 Depression is independently associated with increased length of stay and readmissions in multimorbid inpatients. European Journal of Internal Medicine, Efficient real-time monitoring of an emerging influenza pandemic: How feasible?

Annals of Applied Statistics, 14 1 Relationship of sex steroid hormones with bone mineral density of the lumbar spine in adult men. The role of causal inference in health services research I: tasks in health services research. An empirical comparison of two novel transformation models. Statistics in Medicine, 39 5 Do older adults benefit from post-acute care following hospitalisation? A prospective cohort study at three Swiss nursing homes. Temporal work stressors and satisfaction with work, life and health among health professionals in Switzerland.

Preferences for sun protection with a self-monitoring app: protocol of a discrete choice experiment study. JMIR research protocols, 9 2 :e Comment on: Wieser et al. Ovarian cancer in Switzerland: incidence and treatment according to hospital registry data. Swiss Med Wkly. A new standard for the analysis and design of replication studies. Baseline psychosocial and affective context characteristics predict outcome expectancy as a process appraisal of an organizational health intervention. International Journal of Stress Management, 27 1 Coverage rates and timeliness of nationally recommended vaccinations in Swiss preschool children: A descriptive analysis using claims data.

Vaccine, 38 6 Dose-dependent effectiveness of acellular pertussis vaccine in infants: A population-based case-control study. Held, Leonhard ; Schwab, Simon Improving the reproducibility of science. Significance, 17 1 National trends in total cholesterol obscure heterogeneous changes in HDL and non-HDL cholesterol and total-to-HDL cholesterol ratio: a pooled analysis of population-based studies in Asian and Western countries.

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Journal de Neuroradiologie, 47 1 Hothorn, Torsten Transformation boosting machines. Statistics and Computing, 30 1 Exploring geographic variation of and influencing factors for utilization of four diabetes management measures in Swiss population using claims data. Progressive disease in sentinel-negative melanoma patients: biological differences and importance of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Anticancer Research, 40 2 BMJ Open, 10 1 :e Clusters of sexual behaviour in HIV-positive men who have sex with men reveal highly dissimilar time trends.

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NeuroImage: Clinical, Intracavitary cisplatin-fibrin chemotherapy after surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma: A phase I trial. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, 1 Iron deficiency is associated with higher mortality in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a prospective study. Limited evidence for spatial resource partitioning across temperate grassland biodiversity experiments.

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Heart, 1 The next big threat to global health? The safety and applicability of synthetic pyrethroid insecticides for aircraft disinsection: A systematic review. Travel-associated chikungunya acquired in Myanmar in Eurosurveillance, 25 1 Arbeiten nach Lungentransplantation. Journal of Asthma and Allergy, Clinical Ophthalmology, Coronavirus-induced coagulopathy during the course of disease.

Educational inequalities in mortality amenable to healthcare. A comparison of European healthcare systems. Effects of suboptimal adherence of CPAP-therapy on symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial. European Respiratory Journal Is reporting quality in medical publications associated with biostatisticians as co-authors? A registered report protocol. Perceptions towards physical activity in adult lung transplant recipients with cystic fibrosis. Serum neurofilament light in atrial fibrillation: clinical, neuroimaging and cognitive correlates.

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Journal of Thoracic Disease, 11 11 Andrology, 7 6 Underweight and weight loss are predictors of poor outcome in patients with brain metastasis. Will the Swiss pavilion at Expo Dubai damage your health? A linear mixed model with maximum likelihood estimation for model parameters was used to analyze differences between patient groups, and significant differences were determined after Benjamini and Hochberg multiple hypothesis correction.

Whereas plasma proteins reflected a myeloid signature, exosome proteins reflected a lymphoid signature, suggesting that the two compartments may capture elements of different immune processes. Integrating data from both plasma and exosome proteomics, we applied machine learning tools to build a predictor of response.

Further analysis to look for predictors of toxicity is currently underway. Overall, our work suggests that plasma and exosome protein signatures are distinct and may reflect unique immunological processes. Proteomic analysis of these compartments may be an effective way for non-invasive liquid biopsy to predict ICB response. The response of metastatic melanoma to anti-PD1 is heterogeneous. We performed proteomic profiling of patient plasma samples to build a predictor of immunotherapy response and uncover biological insights underlying primary resistance.

An initial cohort comprised 55 metastatic melanoma patients receiving anti-PD1 Pembrolizumab or Nivolumab at Massachusetts General Hospital MGH , and additional patients comprised a validation cohort. Group differences and treatment effects were evaluated using linear mixed models with maximum likelihood estimation for model parameters, and Benjamini and Hochberg multiple hypothesis correction.

At the baseline, 6 differentially expressed proteins were identified between responders R and non-responders NR whereas immune suppression marker ST2 and IL-6 were found significantly higher among NR. Kaplan-Meier survival curves stratified by the baseline differentially expressed proteins were highly predictive of overall survival OS and progression-free survival PFS.

Furthermore, significantly differentially expressed DE proteins were identified across the treatment period majority of which are reflective of immune activation under the pressure of the immunotherapy. Analysis of single-cell RNA-seq data of tumor tissue from a subset of these patients revealed that gene expression of most proteins predictive of response were enriched among tumor myeloid cells, with the remainder of proteins being reflective of exhausted T cell states.

These results unveil a putative role of myeloid cells within the tumor microenvironment in anti-PD1 response or primary resistance. Importantly, we demonstrate the relationship of serum biomarkers to OS and PFS and are currently attempting to build machine learning classifiers as predictors of response to checkpoint therapy leveraging early and late on-treatment time points.

There is an urgent need for immune biomarkers that can monitor the status of inflammation of cancer patients. Soluble biomarkers represent a convenient prognostic and diagnostic method. Semaphorin 4D Sema4D is a glycoprotein that can function as a transmembrane protein or a cleaved soluble form sSema4D , that we previously detected in peripheral blood [1].

The role of Sema4D as an inflammatory mediator in several pathological aspects and its role in tumor immune suppression [2,3], highlights its significance as a molecule to be further investigated for translational potential. The objective of this work was to investigate the level of sSema4D in plasma in relation to the histological pattern of tumor inflammation of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma HNSCC patients in real time.

Under University of Maryland institutional review board approval and upon patient consent, we obtained paired peripheral blood and tumor tissue of thirty-nine HNSCC patients, collected at the same time point to allow for real time correlative analysis. Thirty eight patients of classic autoimmune conditions, thirteen allergy patients, seven osteoarthritis patients and thirty-one healthy donors were included as controls.

The histological pattern of tumor inflammation [4] was analyzed by three pathologists using the immunohistochemical staining of Sema4D of the tumor associated inflammatory cells TAIs. Three histological patterns of tumor inflammation were defined according to the extent of stromal inflammation and TAIs infiltrate into the tumor islands.

Our data presents a novel role of Sema4D as a soluble immune biomarker that can read in real time the histological pattern of tumor inflammation. Semaphorin 4D in human head and neck cancer tissue and peripheral blood: A dense fibrotic peri-tumoral stromal phenotype.

J Immunol. Ayers M, et al. Background: Activation markers such as PD-1 and PDL-1 as well as tumor mutation burden and IFN-gamma gene expression profiling have been explored as markers for response in melanoma and in other cancers. PD-1 inhibition activates checkpoint positive cytotoxic T lymphocytes cpCTLs inducing tumor regression. We identified patients with melanoma biopsied pre and post PD-1 therapy and available for analysis.

An additional 61 patients were identified with PD-1 resistant melanoma. The mean cpCTL was The efficacy of immune response in solid tumor settings is driven by many factors including the biology of the tumor, the immune system, and the microenvironment. To accompany this panel, we have created analysis software that associates the gene expression and signature scores with annotations of the samples to characterize the immune system, tumor, and stroma within the tumor microenvironment to give insight into underlying biology of response to treatment, disease progression, survival, and other sample characteristics.

The PanCancer IO assay relies on gene signatures to describe biological processes, measure the presence of 14 different immune cell populations, or report the expression of key therapeutic targets. Signatures are either single genes, weighted linear sums of multiple genes with coregulated expression, or algorithms to determine under-expression of genes in a coregulated pathway [2,3].

The analysis software leverages differential expression analysis and Cox proportional hazard modeling to associate gene expression and signature scores with the clinical annotations. In the PanCancer IO analysis, genes and signatures are compared to clinical annotations through heat maps, volcano plots, forest plots, box plots, waterfall plots, swim lane plots, Kaplan Myer plots, scatter plots, and the IO wheel plot.

The report is delivered in an HTML format that provides interactive visualizations, quality control, and downloadable results. Data are analyzed individually and as part of larger treatment groups. The PanCancer IO assay is a tool for characterizing transcriptional patterns associated with tumor-immune interactions that can be applied across a wide range of cancer types.

Gene signatures enable robust characterization of immune activity from small sample cohorts, and the report simplifies the interpretation of results. This combination enables researchers to have insight into clinically relevant biology that will ultimately lead to help drive the immune-oncology field.

Gene expression markers of Tumor Infiltrating Leukocytes. J Immunother Cancer. CyTOF produces high dimensional single cell data allowing simultaneous monitoring of multiple immune cell subsets. This enables characterization of the immune system in normal and disease states.

We developed a standardized pipeline to study human peripheral blood mononuclear cells PBMCs of cancer patients. Here we detail our process and present early findings on a cohort of 40 patients with early-stage triple-negative breast cancer TNBC treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Thirty commercially-available metal-tagged antibodies were optimized to identify major cell subsets using a 4-point titration scheme. Replicates of cryopreserved PBMCs from a pool of 4 healthy donors were created for panel titration and used as longitudinal references.

We stained samples individually using standard protocol, barcoded overnight during DNA intercalation, and pooled for acquisition. Debarcoded output data was normalized on a per-batch basis to the median intensity of EQbeads. We uploaded files to an automated platform for unbiased processing. Patient-level meta-data was added to experiment matrix to determine differential abundance of immune subsets across clinical and pathological groups.

We required 7 rounds of titration to optimize antibody concentrations. Data was collected on over 23 million live single-cell events Table 1 assigned to 31 canonical populations Figure 1A. The median frequencies of main populations were: B cells At the profiling level, 76 subsets were agnostically identified, with B, T, NK, and monocytes broken down into 10, 32, 8, and 13 subsets respectively.

These populations demonstrated opposite association trends when patients were stratified by clinical outcomes. Activated NK cells were more frequent in patients achieving pathological complete response while MDSC-like cells were more frequent in those with residual disease Figures 1D-1E.

We demonstrated the feasibility of a complete pipeline for deep phenotyping of cryopreserved PBMCs in cancer patients. Our approach identified rare cell subsets using an unbiased analysis tool, linking specific populations to opposite clinical outcomes. High dimensional immune monitoring is feasible and should be applied to study the immune system of cancer patients at large.

Guider; the Eveleigh Family; George M. The tumor microenvironment TME is a network of complex interactions between the tumor and surrounding immune cells. Immunotherapies including immune checkpoint blockade have demonstrated therapeutic efficacy and durable responses for several tumor types, however most patients are nonresponsive or develop resistance to such immunotherapies. To identify new predictive biomarkers to better stratify patients, it is essential to comprehensively characterize the immune cells within the TME at the molecular level.

The RNAscope Multiplex Fluorescence assay was used again to visually confirm the differentially expressed genes between the T and B-cell-enriched regions with single cell resolution. To show a workflow combining RNAscope molecularly guided visualization and GeoMx DSP profiling is feasible, we confirmed that both assay protocols are compatible. To test the full automated workflow, we compared the differentially expressed genes within the T cell and B cell-enriched ROI.

We present a robust workflow that overcomes the historical limitations of ISH and IHC by combining high resolution imaging with high plex profiling. Since the introduction of checkpoint blockade inhibitors for cancer immunotherapy, numerous studies have sought to identify biomarkers predictive of patient response [1].

However, the relevance of antigen-driven responses to the tumor has yet to be investigated. To address this question, we examined T cell responses to MART-1, an antigen overexpressed in melanoma cells and a target for melanoma clinical trials that have had variable degrees of success. No significant difference in the frequency of MART-1 expanded T cells was seen between healthy donors and melanoma patients with or without checkpoint therapy.

These clusters were homologous to each other as well as the DMF4 T cell receptor TCR , one of the first clinically used genetically engineered T cells, with a known crystal structure [3,4]. Strategies for Predicting Response to Checkpoint Inhibitors. Curr Hematol Malig Rep. January ; 6 2 N Engl J Med.

Immunotherapy is an actively growing arena in oncotherapeutics research and development. In this context, whether testing CAR-T cells, checkpoint inhibitors, or novel bispecific antibodies, the ultimate goal is to modulate the immune system to harness its tumor killing power. T cells play a critical role in immune-regulated clearance of both liquid and solid tumors. Upon antigenic stimulation and activation, T cells rapidly expand, secrete cytokines, and differentiate to various functional subsets e.

On the other hand, suppression of T cells i. Mouse models remain the most commonly used animal system for in vivo and in vitro cancer biology research and drug discovery. As researchers move forward to either better understand the role of T cells in cancer biology or to develop novel immunotherapies, there is a need for improved methods to quickly gather comprehensive data on T cell biology in this model.

To address this, we demonstrate a multiplexed, high-throughput, robust assay workflow capable of measuring multiple murine T cell biology endpoints quickly and reproducibly in a single-well format. Data were acquired on the iQue3 technology VBR configuration and analyzed on a plate-based level using the integrated ForeCyt software.

Our assay workflow enabled simultaneous evaluation of viability, interrogation of helper and cytotoxic T cells for markers of activation and exhaustion, and identification of key memory subsets. Data analysis and visualization of multiple endpoints was streamlined and performed in real time using the ForeCyt software.

The assay was completed in four hours, including data analysis. Altogether, our workflow allows for easy phenotype and functional profiling of murine T cells in a single-well format while generating actionable results in a matter of hours. The tumor stroma consists of various components of the tumor microenvironment including tumor cells, fibroblasts, immune cells and the extracellular matrix.

Spatial organization and dynamic interplay of the complex cell-to-cell interactions play an important role in cellular phenotypes that can result in permanent alterations in cellular functions and response to oncology as well as immuno-oncology drug treatments. While informative, conventional 2D tumor dissociated models do not maintain the stromal-stoichiometry of the tumor microenvironment, lacking vital support mechanisms necessary to accurately assess ex-vivo tumor cell viability and immune-cell activation after drug treatment.

Here, we describe a functional quantitative multiplex immunofluorescence platform, 3D-plEX, to quantify drug-mediated changes in tumor immune microenvironment and tumor cell viability in intact 3D tumor organoids of patient tumor samples. All patient tumor samples were obtained with patient consent and relevant IRB approval. Unpropagated live 3D tumoroids measuring micron in size were prepared from fresh patient tumors using a proprietary technology, pooled together to represent tumor heterogeneity and equally distributed to different treatment groups including nivolumab, ipilimumab, atezolizumab and urelumab singly or in different combinations.

Cell media was collected for multiplex cytokine release assay. Tumoroids were fixed and embedded for multiplex immunofluorescence studies. Our results demonstrated that 3D-plEX platform using clinically relevant intact, uniformly sized tumoroids of fresh patient tumor tissue is highly versatile and reliable approach to quantify drug-mediated changes in cellular composition and spatial organization of the tumor immune microenvironment.

Combination of this approach with multiplex cytokine release assay allows a comprehensive understanding of dynamic changes within the tumor tissue upon drug treatment. The impact of different immuno-oncology drug treatments ex vivo on TME will be discussed.

Application of this platform in the clinical studies may also allow determining the most effective combinatorial therapeutic strategies for individual patients. The key workhorse for studying these cellular interactions is via imaging; conventional imaging methods are limited by the number of channels and the spatial resolving capabilities.

MIBI can current attain single cell resolutions but has difficulties in resolving fine subcellular features. ExMIBI will be critical for the scientific community to obtain previously inaccessible insights into the fine details of tumor microenvironment and cancer-immune cell interactions, and promises to unravel fundamental insights in patient immunotherapy responses.

Expansion microscopy ExM [3,4] is a technique that can physical expansion of biological specimens 4 to 10 folds through polymer chemistry, three-color fluorescent imaging of cellular features with an apparent lateral resolution of 70 nm in diffraction-limited confocal microscopes has been achieved. However, the expanded gel is fragile and contains up to Various methods for sample charging removal are systematically tested for imaging a non-conductive gel in MIBI.

This method can achieve 40 parameters. We will now be able to map previously inaccessible, finer details of the tumor microenvironment. The application of ExMIBI to dissect cellular immune interactions, in their spatial biological context, will allow a better understanding into the basic principles of our immune system in healthy and disease states.

This research has received advice and help from Prof. Michael Angelo, Prof. Sean Bendall and their research group. Harris Endowed Professorship to G. Multiplexed ion beam imaging of human breast tumors. Nature Medicine. Expansion Microscopy, Science. Protein-retention expansion microscopy of cells and tissues labeled using standard fluorescent proteins and antibodies.

Nature Biotechnology. Manual pathology assessments of Immunohistochemistry IHC markers in immune oncology IO is often challenging and results can be highly variable[1,2]. Measuring biomarker presence in IO must take in to account both immune and tumor environments and provide contextual information on the interaction between tumor and immune biomarker landscapes [3]. Due to the complex nature surrounding tissue biomarker interpretation in IO, digital image analysis IA solutions have been developed that layer complex artificial intelligence AI and machine learning algorithms to obtain full tissue biomarker profiles necessary for drug development and patient stratification[4].

Aggregation of all cellular and biomarker data generates tissue phenotypes that characterize the IO landscape of each tissue. Resulting image markups of cell detection and biomarker expression measured by image analysis were reviewed by an MD pathologist for acceptance. Tissues not meeting acceptance criteria were re-analyzed until acceptable to the reviewing pathologist.

We demonstrate the synergistic value of layered image analysis algorithms which provide context to biomarker expression in NSCLC tissues. Samples were grouped in to immune desert, excluded, and inflamed phenotypes based on total leukocyte and CD8 expression patterns in the tumor, stroma, and margin. PD-L1 expression was scored based on percentages of tumor and stromal expression, as well as digital representations of common PD-L1 scoring paradigms.

Additionally, samples were stratified by PD-L1 patterns of constitutive, induced, immune, or ignorant expression. Digital image analysis of IHC stained tissues creates comprehensive tissue biomarker profiles that are useful in assessment of tumor and immune interactions in IO drug development and patient stratification. Complex algorithms that utilize AI and machine learning can be overseen by MD pathologists to create clinically acceptable digital analysis solutions.

JAMA Oncol. Adv Anat Pathol. Implications of the tumor immune microenvironment for staging and therapeutics. Mod Pathol. PD-L1 immunostaining scoring for non-small cell lung cancer based on immunosurveillance parameters. In colorectal cancer CRC there have been many recent advances in immune-related biomarkers that are both prognostic and predictive of response to immunotherapy. Additionally, location of tumor infiltrating T-cells in two areas of the TME, the tumor center CT and invasive margin IM has also been shown to be prognostic and predictive of response to immunotherapy.

These findings elicit unique biology related to the location and signaling of immune cells, which have the potential to unveil targets for therapeutic combinations. The tumor microenvironment hosts a myriad of cellular interactions that influence tumor biology and patient outcomes. Multiplex immunofluorescence mIF provides the ability to investigate a large number of these interactions in a single tissue section, and has been shown to outperform other testing modalities for predicting response to immunotherapies [1].

Multispectral imaging MSI improves the capabilities of mIF by providing the ability to spectrally unmix fluorescence signals. This increases the number of markers that can be probed in the same scan and allows for separation of true immunofluorescence signals from tissue autofluorescence background. Here, we apply MSI to explore spatial interactions observed in lung cancer samples using an end-to-end translational workflow based on the PhenopticsTM platform.

The workflow includes a pre-optimized 7-color staining panel kit along with a pre-configured analysis algorithm for cell phenotyping. Using tissue microarrays TMA , we demonstrate the heterogeneity of spatial interactions observed among different lung cancer samples and the improved sensitivity of detection afforded by unmixing multispectral scans.

Spatial analyses and visualizations were performed using the phenoptr and phenoptrReports R-based packages and custom scripts. Cell phenotyping and spatial analyses revealed core-to-core variations in cell densities and proximities among different markers.

Measurement of the dynamic range of PD-L1 expression across different cores also revealed the improved sensitivity in PD-L1 detection provided by unmixing. The end-to-end Phenoptics staining, imaging, unmixing, and spatial analysis workflow described here provides a robust and sensitive platform for exploring the immune landscape within the tumor microenvironment. Published online July 18, Tumor cells accumulate deleterious genomic alterations through sustained mutagenic exposure and defective DNA repair.

Using multiplexed quantitative immunofluorescence QIF , we studied the level of major adaptive and innate immune markers in a retrospective collection of stage I-IV CRCs from Yale represented in tissuemicroarrays. From evaluable cases, The DNA repair and immune markers were variably associated with 5-year overall survival in the cohort. All tissues were used after approval from the Yale Human Investigation committee protocol which approved the patient consent forms or waiver of consent.

Tumor cells accumulate genomic alterations as a consequence of sustained mutagenic events and defective DNA repair mechanisms, collectively called DNA damage response DDR. Targeting DDR pathways can induce synthetic lethality and prominent anti-tumor responses in neoplasms with DNA repair deficiency.

In addition, increased DNA damage could favor anti-tumor immune responses by increasing the neo-antigenic load and T-cell recognition. Despite its therapeutic implications, the frequency and significance of DDR alterations in human non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC remains poorly understood. We analyzed the levels of the markers in different tumor tissue compartments and their association with major clinicopathological variables. No additional clinicopathologic associations were found. Understanding cellular heterogeneity and spatial relationships between biomarkers within the tumor microenvironment TME is a key component to translational research in immuno-oncology.

Running medium to large scale translational studies on FFPE tissue demands an assay that is reproducible, quantitative, easy-to-use, and standardized, yet still allows for flexibility when detecting differentially expressing biomarkers across samples.

In this study, we demonstrate a fully developed, flexible, end-to-end workflow solution for tissue biomarker discovery by applying miF in lung cancer and melanoma. Spatial analyses and visualizations were performed in R using phenoptr and phenoptrReports. This simplified end-to-end solution results in better quantification of cancer-immune interactions by providing:.

With these new assays, we have demonstrated an easy-to-use yet comprehensive end-to-end Phenoptics research workflow. We have radically simplified the Opal method and facilitated the development and optimization of translational multiplex fluorescent assays by providing pre-defined staining conditions while still giving researchers the flexibility to balance signals based on their tissue samples.

Complementary pre-configured phenotyping provides researchers faster access to quantitative data across study samples. Frozen breast carcinoma and formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tonsil sections were stained by multi-parameter immunofluorescence IF for markers of T cells, B cells, and cytokeratin. Tonsil micro-regions from one T cell zone and two adjacent follicles were retrieved for RNA sequencing.

Transcriptomic analysis confirmed increased expression of B cell markers in follicles and T cell markers in the T cell zone. Principle component analysis of gene expression found that micro-regions retrieved from the two follicles clustered independently from each other, and from the T cell zone micro-regions.

Differential expression analysis between the adjacent follicles revealed distinct patterns of CD21 expression, a marker which was not present in the original IF staining panel. Subsequent staining confirmed differential protein expression of CD21, indicating that only one follicle contained a germinal center. In breast carcinoma, ROI were identified for micro-region retrieval that included tumor cells, tumor cells with interspersed tumor infiltrating lymphocytes TIL , or adjacent lymphoid aggregates.

Micro-regions were picked and sequenced. Hierarchical clustering and differential expression analysis differentiated the three micro-region types and revealed tumor- and T cell-specific expression signatures. These data establish the potential of combining multi-parameter IF microscopy with highly focused RNA sequencing as a powerful tool for investigation and biomarker discovery for immuno-oncology.

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide with non-small cell lung cancer NSCLC representing the gross majority of the cases. The immune microenvironment of NSCLC is diverse with many players that can impact tumor development and clinical outcomes. In particular, myeloid-derived suppressor cells MDSC are important components of the immunosuppressive network that can hinder the activity of T cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells.

There is a gap in the relevance of MDSC within the tissue context due to limitations with conventional immunohistochemistry. Multiplex immunofluorescence offers a technical advantage by allowing the detection of co-expression and spatial organization of multiple targets within a preserved tissue architecture on a single slide.

The development and verification of the multiplex panel are presented. A varying distribution of the cell populations in the lung tissue and the peripheral blood of the different NSCLC subtypes can be appreciated. The two approaches are compared.

The approaches presented here demonstrate the power of multiplex immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry in the identification and quantification of multiple immune cell populations with a limited quantity of patient sample and the potential application of this method in both preclinical and clinical studies.

Gliomas are the most common primary central nervous system tumor, with malignant gliomas causing significant morbidity and mortality. Multiple preclinical studies and clinical trials have attempted to target these cells; however, monitoring responses to these therapies remains a challenge.

Quantifying TAMCs within gliomas using an antibody-based tracer for non-invasive positron emission tomography immunoPET may allow for better patient stratification, monitoring of treatment efficacy, and ultimately improve survival rates []. Integrin CD11b is a cellular marker expressed on the surface of TAMCs frequently used to identify macrophages and microglia.

Spleen and lymph nodes also showed high uptake, while bone and muscle showed low uptake. Biodistribution analysis confirmed these results. Additionally, no uptake was observed in the brain of non-tumor bearing mice that received 89Zr-ant- CD11b. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype. JCI insight. Tumor-associated macrophages in glioma: friend or foe? J oncol; Kohanbash G, Okada H.

Myeloid-derived suppressor cells MDSCs in gliomas and glioma-development. Immunolo invest. Tumor-associated macrophages in glioblastoma multiforme-a suitable target for somatostatin receptor-based imaging and therapy? PloS one. Cancer Res. Myeloid derived suppressor cell infiltration of murine and human gliomas is associated with reduction of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes. J Neurooncol. Immunotherapeutic approaches for glioma.

Crit rev immunol. Stem Cells. Frequencies of circulating MDSC correlate with clinical outcome of melanoma patients treated with ipilimumab. Cancer Immunol Immunother. Cancer immunotherapies have made a great progress and hold much promise in the treatment of cancer.

With this in mind, being able to visualize a rapidly dividing cellular population is another obstacle to consider. Using a general T-cell expansion protocol, we show that adding a cellular label does not alter the viability or release characteristics of T cells. By pairing the PFC signal with conventional proton MRI from the same imaging session, the images are able to be overlaid, allowing cells to be traced to their anatomical location.

With nominal exogenous fluorine naturally present in tissue, labeled cells appear with little background. Images of both reagents show the detection and sensitivity of the method and how they can be applied to monitor the distribution of cells over time.

Here, two different tissue-based approaches have been compared: multiplex immunofluorescence mIF and multiplex chromogenic immunohistochemistry mIHC. Independently of the technique used, assay reproducibility and standardized quantification of staining intensity are a prerequisite for obtaining consistent results. Using a cohort of non-small cell lung carcinoma NSCLC patients, we identified patterns of immune cell infiltration that were comparable, independent of the assay applied.

Z1 scanner Zeiss both as whole slide images. Densities of immune cell populations and their locations in different compartments invasive margin vs tumor center and tumor epithelium vs tumor stroma were measured Figure 1. Differentiation between tumor epithelium and tumor stroma was based on a histology-driven deep learning approach for mIHC and on pan Cytokeratin for mIF Figure 1.

By applying mIHC and mIF in true consecutive tissue slides we retrieved the information of tumor immune cell infiltrates that was consistent across the different assays and distinguished it from information that is specific to either of the assays. We believe that being able to relate across staining techniques could help pathologists and research centers draw conclusions across cohorts that were stained with the same markers but with different assays.

Lisa M. Dauffenbach, Christopher A. Kerfoot, et al. Characterization of inflammatory cell patterns and densities using multiplex immunohistochemistry immuno-oncology assays [abstract]. Automated quantification of whole-slide multispectral immunofluorescence images to identify spatial expression patterns in the lung cancer microenvironment.

Poster nr P Tissue phenomic approaches were developed to spatially characterize, quantify immune cell patterns and visualize heterogeneity within the TiME Figure 1. The MLH1 methylated tumour with a high tumour mutation burden This study evaluated the immune contexture within inherited and sporadic subtypes of dMMR CRCs and ECs, highlighting differing immune infiltration patterns and phenomic densities.

Integration of multiplex technologies and Tissue Phenomics can enhance the understanding of the dMMR TiME and with potential utility in clinical triaging and to inform immune-oncology clinical trials. Here, we developed viralMIBI, a highly sensitive method capable of detecting down to single copies of nucleic acids, in addition to protein epitopes.

The combination of viralMIBI and cutting-edge cell neighborhood analytical methods will be paramount to better understand the immunological host-pathogen interactions for viral diseases, revealing insights into virus-induced immunodeficiency as well as virus-driven cancers. To allow for the sensitive detection of nucleic acids, we took advantage of a customized branched DNA amplification method that can be easily adapted to a variety of multiplexed imaging platforms.

Imaging was performed with the MIBIscope, a secondary ion mass spectrometry based device. We have established a robust method for highly multiplexed nucleic acid and protein epitope detection in FFPE tissue samples. As a proof of concept, we were able to detect down to single integrated copies of SIV.

The establishment and validation of a Rhesus macaque specific antibody panel allowed for the in-depth characterization of cellular identities at the single-cell level, while maintaining their tissue geopositions. Here, we leveage this method for the detection of various viral pathogens. ViralMIBI is also applicable to other targets, such as genomic amplifications frequently seen in cancers, or gene expression studies.

These discoveries can then be translated to better immunotherapy treatments against viral driven diseases. The main current treatment for GCT is surgery, however a subset require chemotherapy for residual and recurrent disease. GCT malignancies are often low-grade, however a clinical characteristic of these tumors is a tendency for late recurrence which is the most critical factor for GCT death. As the onset of recurrence is unpredictable, future research should focus on identifying both biomarkers for prognosis prediction, as well as targets that could help guide clinical trials in the development of targeted therapies for this rare indication.

As GCTs are rare tumors making tissue availability very limited, we used a dual multiplexing approach in order to maximize the data output from a total of 14 FFPE tumor samples 6 primary tumors, and 8 recurrent tumors. Each round of staining is imaged and followed by dye inactivation enabling repeated rounds of staining and deactivation, while deep learning based cell classification algorithms identify positive cells for each biomarker.

TNFSF4 encodes the protein OX40L, and interestingly a high expression of its receptor OX40 has previously been shown to be indicative for response to chemotherapy in recurrent ovarian cancer [1]. We have used a dual multiplexing approach on both gene and protein level in order to immunoprofile the tumor microenvironment of ovarian rare granulosa tumors.

High OX40 expression in recurrent ovarian carcinoma is indicative for response to repeated chemotherapy. BMC Cancer. Analyzing populations at the single cell level has become increasingly important in the study of cancer and autoimmune disorders due to high levels of population heterogeneity and rare cell phenotypes that can drive disease pathogenesis and progression. Until recently, characterizing protein markers on single cells was limited to a handful of markers due to the technical and logistical challenges of flow cytometry platforms.

New advancements in single cell analysis technologies have enabled researchers to study more than 30 parameters per cell. But these platforms are expensive and require significant panel design, thereby limiting access and usability. The CODEX technology uses a DNA-based barcode library to label antibodies and iterative cycles of adding and removing cognate dye-labeled oligonucleotides to reveal the staining of three markers per cycle.

We tested a custom panel of more than 25 markers on the PBMC samples and acquired the images using a Keyence benchtop microscope. Antibody specificity and panel performance were evaluated by assessing co-expression and mutually exclusive expression of relevant immune markers with the CODEX analysis pipeline.

Simultaneous analysis of tens of markers in blood or plasma samples can have several applications in the discovery of cellular biomarkers, immune monitoring and drug discovery and development. This preliminary study shows the compatibility of the CODEX system with cell suspensions for highly multiplexed, single-cell analysis and offers a more cost-effective method for immune profiling of blood samples.

Hepatocellular carcinoma HCC is a lethal cancer, being the fourth leading cause of cancer-associated mortality worldwide due to its low five-year survival and high reoccurrence rates [1], and identifying indicators of prognosis is key in developing novel treatments and improving survival of HCC patients. With the advent of digital pathology, the immune-architecture of solid tumours has become a central interest of cancer research and has been studied for the development of predictive and diagnostic applications.

Here, we have assessed if intercellular Euclidean distances in the tumour immune microenvironment can possibly be used to predict patient prognosis. In this study, biopsies were taken from HCC patients who underwent surgical resection. Ecadherin was adopted as the tumour cell marker, and 26 immune cell phenotypes are defined by variable levels of immune markers CD8, CD, and PD-1 as shown in Table 1 Dimensionality reduction and unsupervised clustering of the distances between tumour and immune cell phenotypes showed distinct clusters of patients with significant differences in clinical outcomes.

This indicates a strong association of cell-cell distances with patient survival, and a robust reproducibility of distance pattern-based predictors. In this study, our data suggests that the analysis of intercellular distances has the potential to be used as a prognostic indicator in HCC. Coupled with next generation machine learning techniques, this novel approach to cell-to-cell distance analysis has the potential to be an easily implementable algorithm to predict patient prognosis in HCC.

This bioinformatics approach can also be utilized in the analysis of other biomarkers and cancer types, and this brings exciting prospects for the future of cancer research. Global epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma: an emphasis on demographic and regional variability.

Clinics in liver disease. Cell-to-cell distances between tumor-infiltrating inflammatory cells have the potential to distinguish functionally active from suppressed inflammatory cells. The immune cell milieu that comprises the tumor microenvironment TME is highly heterogeneous and complex. Depending on biological interactions and functional state, immune cell populations can either promote or suppress tumor progression. Multiple biomarkers are required to accurately identify these individual immune cell types and their functional states.

In this work, we employ advanced multiplexing techniques to observe biologically and functionally distinct T cell and MDSC populations and to quantify their density and distribution within the TME of several tumor types. UltiMapper assays were used to perform multiplex immunofluorescence on multiple tumor FFPE samples lung, colorectal, breast. This instrument performs high-speed, whole-slide scanning in the 5 channels used in the UltiMapper Kits and outputs an open source, stitched, pyramidal TIFF.

Image analysis was conducted using HALO 3. Spatial analysis was employed to map the degree of T-cell infiltration and exhaustion correlating to T-reg and MDSC expression in the tumor microenvironment. Here we present a workflow for tackling the complexity of the tumor immune microenvironment by leveraging high-quality multiplex panels, high-speed whole-slide imaging, and quantitative spatial analysis. UltiMapper assays used in this study PD-1, T-reg, and MDSC were able to identify single-cell phenotypes through co-localization and negative selection of markers.

Using HALO image analysis, cell populations were enumerated and quantified to measure the level of T-cell exhaustion caused by T-cell regulation and myeloid-derived immune cell suppression. The immune contexture in cancer prognosis and treatment.

T Cell Dysfunction in Cancer. Cancer Cell. Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours. Innovative and efficient translational research tools enabling a better understanding of the tumor and its microenvironment are a keystone of the development of digital pathology. True phenotyping requires the use of a single section, as serial sections may not contain the same cells, especially small immune cells such as T-cells. Multiplex immunofluorescence mIF methods have been established to provide insights into a wide number of markers of interest and their spatial context in a single sample.

Z1 slide scanner. Images of the same tissue section were co-registered and fused into a single image for analysis using Indica Labs HALO software. The InSituPlex technology enables deep phenotyping of immune cells through colocalization and co-expression of multiple protein markers in tumor samples. The fused images were also analyzed to provide cell counts, distance mapping, and expression levels of each of the markers.

The rapid growth of research into immuno-oncology research has fueled a need to track be able to determine the location of a variety of immune cells systemically and in solid tumors. However, existing methods for cell tracking that have generally been insufficient. Magnetic Particle Imaging MPI is a novel tomographic molecular imaging technique that can be used to non-invasively track iron-oxide tagged immune cells in 3D in vivo, with contrast similar to nuclear medicine but without the complex workflow, safety, and half-life limitations.

Twenty mice were implanted with , 4T1 tumour cells in the 4th mammary fat pad. Tumors, liver, spleen and draining lymph nodes were then harvested, imaged, fixed, and stained with Prussian blue and analyzed for iron contents. Tumor-bearing mice showed a significant accumulation of nanoparticles for both the in situ and in vitro targeting methods, although the time and amount of accumulation was different.

For both experiments, nanoparticles were predominately detected in the expanding margins of the tumor. For the in vitro labeled monocytes, accumulation was rapid, with the maximum accumulation being at 24 hours post-injection, while for the in situ labeled cells, accumulation was slower. By combining the sensitivity, specificity as well as accurate quantitation potentials of MPI, information can be obtained on labeled monocytes and their biodistribution in tumour models.

Other cells can also be labeled dendritic cells, MDSCs, NKs, and T cells and this information can be utilized to better understand the factors influencing immune cell migration in and around tumors. Although hugely successful, there are limitations. In many studies, less than half the patients are responsive to therapy. Thus, methods to stimulate an immunogenic response in solid tumours to improve immunotherapy efficacy are desirable.

Hyperthermia is known to induce a local immunogenic response, making it a potential adjunct to radiation and immune therapies. Magnetic Particle Imaging MPI is an emerging tracer imaging technique that directly detects and quantitates superparamagnetic iron-oxide nanoparticles with exceptional contrast and high sensitivity at millimeter-scale resolutions [5]. Here we describe how MPI and MFH can be combined to produce spatially localized heating and accurate control of heating magnitude.

Spatial localization is achieved using a unique mechanism, magnetic localization. MPI is first used to quantitate the MNPs prior to heating, to enable treatment planning and prediction of the heating dose. MFH can then be induced in target regions of interest located anywhere in the body while avoiding regions containing MNPs that should not be heated, such as the liver or lymph nodes.

These workflows may resemble image-guided radiation therapy or image-guided high-intensity focused ultrasound. Combined MPI-MFH also prevents damage to nearby healthy tissue while enabling new applications such as targeted immunogenic stimulation. While currently only available for small animal use, its underlying physics does not prevent its translation to human sizes.

The pathogenesis of these disorders is thought to involve dysregulation of mucosal immune homeostasis in the GIT in response to environmental factors in genetically susceptible individuals [2]. There are two major populations of Treg: conventional Treg and TR1 cells [3]. An imbalance in conventional Treg and effector T cells in the GIT microenvironment is thought to play a part in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease IBD [4].

This complex antigenic signature has made it difficult to definitively label Treg populations in tissue sections by immunohistochemistry. Using this approach, we were able to definitively identify and enumerate these immune cell populations on single FFPE tissue sections from each specimen.

Worldwide incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease in the 21st century: a systematic review of population-based studies. Inflammatory bowel disease. Immunol Lett. Treg subsets in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal carcinoma: Characteristics, role, and therapeutic targets. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. Role of regulatory T cell in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

World J Gastroenterol. Tissues were collected for research purposes under IRB-approved informed consent and collection procedures and provided to Pfizer in accordance with applicable government regulations and guidelines. The tumor microenvironment plays a vital role in cancer development.

Multiplex immunostainings allow studying the interaction of different cell types in the tumor microenvironment using a single tissue slide. Though several techniques are available to perform high-plex stainings, they require intensive manual handling, are highly time consuming or not compatible with tissue sections on standard microscope slides. Here we present a fully automated microscope integrated method for rapid high-plex sequential fluorescent immunostaining and imaging of tissue sections.

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections underwent manual dewaxing and antigen retrieval step. All subsequent steps of staining, antibody elution and imaging were automated on the microscope integrated microfluidic device. A single tissue section was stained sequentially for 24 different immunophenotyping and tissue structural markers.

Each staining cycle consisted of incubation of the tissue section with a pair of mouse and rabbit primary antibodies, followed by the corresponding fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies and DAPI. The section was imaged after each staining cycle and subsequently eluted before staining the next pair of markers.

Our microscope integrated microfluidic system allowed automated plex staining with conventional primary and fluorescently labelled secondary antibodies in less than five hours, including image acquisition steps. The microfluidic tissue processor enabled fast fluidic exchange and thereby resulted in reduced staining time down to min per marker.

Integration of a window into the microfluidic chip allowed direct tissue imaging under the microscope avoiding the removal and mounting of the slide. Protocol optimization resulted in a high signal to background noise ratio for each marker and complete elution of antibodies from the previous staining step.

A comparison of a plex staining with standard chromogenic stainings on sequential sections showed high concordance for the stained area on tonsil as well as lung cancer tissue sections Figure 1. With the microscope integrated microfluidic system, it is possible to perform fast multiplex stainings including image acquisition without the need to handle the tissue slide.

Moreover, due to the sequential nature of the system it would be easily possible to further increase the number of markers in the multiplex staining. We foresee this technique to greatly facilitates the execution of high-plex stainings and thereby the discovery of novel tumor-microenvironment interactions.

Elucidating both the cell types present in the tumor microenvironment and the spatial relationship between immune and cancerous cells is at the forefront of immunotherapy research. To address this, MIBI has been developed to image up to 40 markers at single cell resolution. The tissue was imaged at subcellular resolution using an ion beam and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry ToF-SIMS.

The masses of detected species were then assigned to target biomolecules given the unique label of each antibody and multi-step processing and segmentation were performed to create images of the TME and enable quantitative metrics of different cell subsets. Highly expressed nuclear, membrane, and cytoplasmic markers were utilized in conjunction to accurately determine cell boundaries in tissue images.

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